TEAS Working Group A. Farrel, Ed.
Internet-Draft Juniper Networks
Intended status: Informational Q. Zhao, Ed.
Expires: November 7, 2016 R. Li
Huawei Technologies
C. Zhou
Cisco Systems
May 6, 2016

An Architecture for Use of PCE and PCEP in a Network with Central Control


The Path Computation Element (PCE) has become established as a core component of Software Defined Networking (SDN) systems. It can compute optimal paths for traffic across a network for any definition of "optimal" and can also monitor changes in resource availability and traffic demands to update the paths.

Conventionally, the PCE has been used to derive paths for MPLS Label Switched Paths (LSPs). These paths are supplied using the Path Computation Element Communication Protocol (PCEP) to the head end of the LSP for signaling in the MPLS network.

SDN has a far broader applicability than just signaled MPLS traffic engineered networks, and the PCE may be used to determine paths in a wide range of use cases including static LSPs, segment routing, service function chaining (SFC), and indeed any form of routed or switched network. It is, therefore reasonable to consider PCEP as a general southbound control protocol for use in these environments to allow the PCE to be fully enabled as a central controller.

This document briefly introduces the architecture for PCE as a central controller, examines the motivations and applicability for PCEP as a southbound interface, and introduces the implications for the protocol. This document does not describe the use cases in detail and does not define protocol extensions: that work is left for other documents.

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction

The Path Computation Element (PCE) [RFC4655] was developed to offload path computation function from routers in an MPLS traffic engineered network. Since then, the role and function of the PCE has grown to cover a number of other uses (such as GMPLS [RFC7025]) and to allow delegated control [I-D.ietf-pce-stateful-pce] and PCE-initiated use of network resources [I-D.ietf-pce-pce-initiated-lsp].

According to [RFC7399], Software Defined Networking (SDN) refers to a separation between the control elements and the forwarding components so that software running in a centralized system called a controller, can act to program the devices in the network to behave in specific ways. A required element in an SDN architecture is a component that plans how the network resources will be used and how the devices will be programmed. It is possible to view this component as performing specific computations to place flows within the network given knowledge of the availability of network resources, how other forwarding devices are programmed, and the way that other flows are routed. This is the function and purpose of a PCE, and the way that a PCE integrates into a wider network control system including SDN is presented in [RFC7491].

In early PCE implementations, where the PCE was used to derive paths for MPLS Label Switched Paths (LSPs), paths were requested by network elements and the results of the path computations were supplied to network elements using the Path Computation Element Communication Protocol (PCEP) [RFC5440]. This protocol was later extended to allow a PCE to send unsolicited requests to the network for LSP establishment [I-D.ietf-pce-pce-initiated-lsp].

SDN has a far broader applicability than just signaled MPLS or GMPLS traffic engineered networks. The PCE component in an SDN system may be used to determine paths in a wide range of use cases including static LSPs, segment routing [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing], service function chaining (SFC) [RFC7665], and indeed any form of routed or switched network. It is, therefore reasonable to consider PCEP as a general southbound control protocol for use in these environments to allow the PCE to be fully enabled as a central controller.

This document introduces the architecture for PCE as a central controller, examines the motivations and applicability for PCEP as a southbound interface, and introduces the implications for the protocol. This document dos not describe the use cases in detail and does not define protocol extensions: that work is left for other documents.

2. Architecture

The architecture for the use of PCE within centralized control of a network is based on the understanding that a PCE can determine how connections should be placed and how resources should be used within the network, and that the PCE can then cause those connections to be established. Figure 1 shows how this control relationship works in a network with an active control plane. This is a familiar view for those who have read and understood [RFC4655] and [I-D.ietf-pce-pce-initiated-lsp].

In this mode of operation, the central controller is asked to create connectivity by a network orchestrator, a service manager, an Operations Support System (OSS), a Network Management Station (NMS), or some other application. The PCE-based controller computes paths with awareness of the network topology, the available resources, and the other services supported in the network. This information is held in the Traffic Engineering Database (TED) and other databases available to the PCE. Then the PCE sends a request using PCEP to one of the Network Elements (NEs), and that NE uses a control plane to establish the requested connections and reserve the network resources.

             | Orchestrator / Service Manager / OSS / NMS |
                 |            |     -----
                 | PCE-based  |<---| TED |
                 | Controller |     -----
                 |            |
                   ----           ----       ----       ----
                  | NE |<------->| NE |<--->| NE |<--->| NE |
                   ----  Control  ----       ----       ----

Figure 1: Architecture for Central Controller with Control Plane

Although the architecture shown in Figure 1 represents a form of SDN, one objective of SDN in some environments is to remove the dependency on a control plane. A transition architecture toward this goal is presented in [RFC7491] and is shown in Figure 2. In this case, services are still requested in the same way, and the PCE-based controller still requests use of the network using PCEP. The main difference is that the consumer of the PCEP messages is a Network Controller that provisions the resources and instructs the data plane using Southbound Interface (SBI) that provides an interface to each NE.

             | Orchestrator / Service Manager / OSS / NMS |
                           |            |     -----
                           | PCE-based  |<---| TED |
                           | Controller |     -----
                           |            |
                                 | PCEP
                           |  Network   |
                           | Controller |
                      SBI /   ^       ^  \
                         /    |       |   \
                        /     v       v    \
                   ----/    ----     ----   \----
                  | NE |   | NE |   | NE |  | NE |
                   ----     ----     ----    ----

Figure 2: Architecture Including a Network Controller

The approach in Figure 2 delivers the SDN functionality but is overly complicated and insufficiently flexible.

  • The complication is created by the use of two controllers in a hierarchical organization, and the resultant use of two protocols in a southbound direction.
  • The lack of flexibility arises from the assumed or required lack of a control plane.

This document describes an architecture that reduces the number of components and is flexible to a number of deployment models and use cases. In this hybrid approach (shown in Figure 3) the network controller is PCE-enabled and can also speak PCEP as the SBI (i.e., it can communicate with each node along the path using PCEP). That means that the controller can communicate with a conventional control plane-enabled NE using PCEP and can also use the same protocol to program individual NEs. In this way the PCE-based controller can control a wider range of networks and deliver many different functions as described in Section 3.

PCEP is essentially already capable of acting as an SBI and only small, use case- specific modifications to the protocol are needed to support this architecture. The implications for the protocol are discussed further in Section 4.

             | Orchestrator / Service Manager / OSS / NMS |
                           |            |     -----
                           | PCE-based  |<---| TED |
                           | Controller |     -----
                           |            |
                     PCEP /   ^       ^  \
                         /    |       |   \
                        /     v       v    \
                       /    ----     ----   \
                      /    | NE |   | NE |   \
                 ----/      ----     ----     \----
                | NE |                        | NE |
                 ----                          ----
                   ^        ----     ----      ^
                   :......>| NE |...| NE |<....:
              Control Plane ----     ----

Figure 3: Architecture for Node-by-Node Central Control

2.1. Resilience and Scaling

Systems with central controllers are vulnerable to two problems: failure or overload of the single controller. These concerns are not unique to the use of a PCE-based controller but need to be addressed in this document before the PCE-based controller architecture can be considered for use in all but the smallest networks.

There are three architectural mechanisms that can be applied to address these issues. The mechanisms are described separately for clarity, but a deployment use may any combination of the approaches.

For simplicity of illustration, these three approaches are shown in the sections that follow without a control plane. However, the general, hybrid approach of Figure 3 is applicable in each case.

2.1.1. Partitioned Network

The first and simplest approach to handling controller overload or scalability is to use multiple controllers, each responsible for a part of the network. We can call the resultant areas of control "domains."

This approach is shown in Figure 4. It can clearly address some of the scaling and overload concerns since each controller now only has responsibility for a subset of the network elements. But this comes at a cost because end-to-end connections require coordination between the controllers. Furthermore, this technique does not remove the single-point-of-failure concern even if it does reduce the impact on the network of the failure of a single controller.

Note that PCEP is designed to work as a PCE-to-PCE protocol as well as a PCE-to-PCC protocol, so it should be possible to use it to coordinate between PCE-based controllers in this model.

                | Orchestrator / Service Manager / OSS / NMS |
                             ^                 ^
                             |                 |
                             v                 v
                     ------------  Coord-    ------------
          -----     |            |  ination |            |     -----
         | TED |--->| PCE-based  |<-------->| PCE-based  |<---| TED |
          -----     | Controller |          | Controller |     -----
                    |            |          |            |
                    /------------            ------------\
                   /    ^       ^           ^        ^    \
                  /     |       |           |        |     \
                 |      |       |           |        |      |
                 v      v       v     ::    v        v      v
               ----    ----    ----   ::   ----    ----    ----
              | NE |  | NE |  | NE |  ::  | NE |  | NE |  | NE |
               ----    ----    ----   ::   ----    ----    ----
                             Domain 1 :: Domain 2

Figure 4: Multiple Controllers on a Partitioned Network

2.1.2. Multiple Parallel Controllers

Multiple parallel controllers may be deployed as shown in Figure 5. Each controller is capable of controlling all of the network elements thus the failure of any one controller will not leave the network unmanageable and, in normal circumstances, the load can be distributed across the controllers.

To achieve full redundancy and to be able to continue to provide full function in the event of the failure a controller, the controllers must synchronize with each other. This is nominally a simple task if there are just two controllers, but can actually be quite complex if state changes in the network are not to be lost. Furthermore, if there are more than two controllers, the synchronization between controllers can become a hard problem.

Synchronization issues are often off-loaded as "database synchronization" problems because distributed database packages have already had to address these challenges. In networking the problem may also be addressed by collecting the state from the network (effectively using the network as a database) using normal routing protocols such as OSPF, IS-IS, and BGP.

                   | Orchestrator / Service Manager / OSS / NMS |
                           ^                            ^
                           |    ___________________     |
                           |   |  Synchronization  |    |
                           v   v                   v    v
                     ------------                 ------------
                    |            |     -----     |            |
                    | PCE-based  |<---| TED |--->| PCE-based  |
                    | Controller |     -----     | Controller |
                    |            |__  ...........|            |
                     ------------\  \_:__        :------------
                           ^  ^   \___:  \  .....:  ^   ^
                           |  |  .....:\  \_:___  ..:   :
                           |  |__:___   \___:_  \_:___  :
                           | ....:   | .....: | ..:   | :
                           | :       | :      | :
                           v v       v v      v v     v v
                          ----      ----     ----     ----
                         | NE |    | NE |   | NE |   | NE |
                          ----      ----     ----     ----

Figure 5: Multiple Redundant Controllers

2.1.3. Hierarchical Controllers

Figure 6 shows an approach with hierarchical controllers. This approach was developed for PCEs in [RFC6805] and appears in various SDN architectures where a "parent PCE", an "orchestrator", or "super controller" takes responsibility for a high-level view of the network before distributing tasks to lower level PCEs or controllers.

On its own, this approach does little to protect against the failure of a controller, but it can make significant improvements in loading and scaling of the individual controllers. It also offers a good way to support end-to-end connectivity across multiple administrative or technology-specific domains.

Note that this model can recurse arbitrarily with one PCE-based controller acting as the parent of of another set of PCE-based controllers.

                 | Orchestrator / Service Manager / OSS / NMS |
                                 |   Parent   |     -----
                                 | PCE-based  |<---| TED |
                                 | Controller |     -----
                                 |            |
                                   ^        ^
                                   |        |
                                   v        v
                         ------------      ------------
              -----     |            |    |            |     -----
             | TED |--->| PCE-based  |    | PCE-based  |<---| TED |
              -----     | Controller |    | Controller |     -----
                       /|            |    |            |\
                      /  ------------      ------------  \
                     /   ^       ^           ^        ^   \
                    /    |       |           |        |    \
                   /     |       |           |        |     \
                  |      |       |     ::    |        |      |
                  v      v       v     ::    v        v      v
                ----    ----    ----   ::   ----    ----    ----
               | NE |  | NE |  | NE |  ::  | NE |  | NE |  | NE |
                ----    ----    ----   ::   ----    ----    ----
                              Domain 1 :: Domain 2

Figure 6: Hierarchical Controllers

3. Applicability

This section gives a very high-level introduction to the applicability of a PCE-based centralized controller. There is no attempt to explain each use case in detail, and the inclusion of a use case is not intended to suggest that deploying a PCE-based controller is a mandatory or recommended approach. The sections below are provided as a stimulus to discussion of the applicability of a PCE-based controller and it is expected that separate documents will be written to develop the use cases in which there is interest for implementation and deployment. As described in Section 4 specific enhancements to PCEP may be needed for some of these use cases and it is expected that the documents that develop each use case will also address any extensions to PCEP.

The rest of this section is divided into two sub-sections. The first approaches the question of applicability from a consideration of the network technology. The second looks at the high-level functions that can be delivered by using a PCE-based controller.

As previously mentioned, this section is intended to just make suggestions. Thus the material supplied is very brief. The omission of a use case is in no way meant to imply some limit on the applicability of PCE-based control.

3.1. Technology-Oriented Applicability

This section provides a list of use cases based on network technology.

3.1.1. Applicability to Control Plane Operated Networks

This mode of operation is the common approach for an active, stateful PCE to control a traffic engineered MPLS or GMPLS network [I-D.ietf-pce-stateful-pce]. Note that the PCE-based controller determines what LSPs are needed and where to place them. PCEP is used to instruct the head end of each LSP, and the head end signals in the control plane to set up the LSP.

3.1.2. Static LSPs in MPLS

Static LSPs are provisioned without the use of a control plane. This means that they are established using management plane or "manual" configuration.

Static LSPs can be provisioned as 1-hop, micro-LSPs at each node along the path of an end-to-end path LSP. Each router along the path must be told what label forwarding instructions to program and what resources to reserve. The PCE-based controller keeps a view of the network and determines the paths of the end-to-end LSPs just as it does for the use case described in Section 3.1.1, but the controller uses PCEP to communicate with each router along the path of the end-to-end LSP. In this case the PCE-based controller will take responsibility for managing some part of the MPLS label space for each of the routers that it controls.

3.1.3. MPLS Multicast

Multicast LSPs may be provisioned with a control plane or as static LSPs. No extra considerations apply above those in Section 3.1.1 and Section 3.1.2 except, of course, to note that the PCE must also include the instructions about where the LSP branches, i.e., where packets must be copied.

3.1.4. Transport SDN

Transport SDN (T-SDN) is the application of SDN techniques to transport networks. In this respect a transport network is a network built from any technology below the IP layer and designed to carry traffic transparently in a connection-oriented way. Thus, an MPLS traffic engineering network is a transport network although it is more common to consider technologies such as Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) and Optical Transport Networks (OTN).

Transport networks may be operated with or without a control plane and may have point-to-point or point-to-multipoint connections. Thus, all of the considerations in Section 3.1.1, Section 3.1.2, and Section 3.1.3 apply. It may be the case that additional technology- specific parameters are needed to configure the NEs and these parameters will need to be carried in the PCEP messages.

3.1.5. Segment Routing

Segment routing is described in [I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing]. It relies on a series of forwarding instructions being placed in the header or a packet: at each hop in the network a router looks at the first instruction and may continue to forward the packet unchanged, strip the top instruction and forward the packet, or strip the top instruction, insert some additional instructions, and forward the packet.

The segment routing architecture supports operations that can be used to steer packet flows in a network thus providing a form of traffic engineering. A PCE-based controller can be responsible for computing the paths for packet flows in a segment routing network, for configuring the forwarding actions on the routers, and for telling the edge routers what instructions to attach to packets as they enter the network. These last two operations can be achieved using PCEP and the PCE-based controller will assume responsibility for managing the space of labels or path identifiers used to determine how packets are forwarded.

3.1.6. Service Function Chaining

Service Function Chaining (SFC) is described in [RFC7665]. It is the process of directing traffic in a network such that it passes through specific hardware devices or virtual machines (known as service function nodes) that can perform particular desired functions on the traffic. The set of functions to be performed and the locations at which they are to be performed is known as service function chain. Each packet is marked as belonging to a specific chain and that marking lets each successive service function node know which functions to perform and to which service function node to send the packet next.

To operate an SFC network the service function nodes must be configured to understand the packet markings and the edge nodes must be told how to mark packets entering the network. Additionally it may be necessary to establish tunnels between service function nodes to carry the traffic.

Planning an SFC network requires load balancing between service function nodes and traffic engineering across the network that connects them. These are operations that can be performed by a PCE-based controller, and that controller can use PCEP to program the network and install the service function chains and any required tunnels.

3.2. High-Level Applicability

This section provides a list of the high-level functions that can be delivered by using a PCE-based controller.

3.2.1. Traffic Engineering

According to [RFC2702], Traffic Engineering (TE) is concerned with performance optimization of operational networks. In general, it encompasses the application of technology and scientific principles to the measurement, modeling, characterization, control of Internet traffic, and the application of such knowledge and techniques to achieve specific performance objectives.

From a practical point of view this involves having an understanding of the topology of the network, the characteristics of the nodes and links in the network, and the traffic demands and flows across the network. It also requires that actions can be taken to ensure that traffic follows specific paths through the network.

PCE was specifically developed to address TE in an MPLS network, and so a PCE-based controller is well suited to analyze TE problems and supply answers that can be installed in the network using PCEP. PCEP can be responsible for initiating paths across the network through a control plane, or for installing state in the network node by node such as in a Segment Routed network (see Section 3.1.5) or by configuring IGP metrics.

3.2.2. Traffic Classification

Traffic classification is an important part of traffic engineering. It is the process of looking at a packet to determine how it should be treated as it is forwarded through the network. It applies in many scenarios including MPLS traffic engineering (where it determines what traffic is forwarded onto which LSPs), segment routing (where it is used to select which set of forwarding instructions to add to a packet), and service function chaining (where it indicates along which service function chain a packet should be forwarded).

Traffic classification is closely linked to the computational elements of planning for the network functions just listed because it determines how traffic load is balanced and distributed through the network. Therefore, selecting what traffic classification should be performed by a router is an important part of the work done by a PCE-based controller.

Instructions can be passed from the controller to the routers using PCEP. These instructions tell the routers how to map traffic to paths or connections. The instructions may use the concept of a Frowarding Equivalence Class (FEC).

3.2.3. Service Delivery

Various network services may be offered over a network. These include protection services (including end-to-end protection [RFC4427], restoration after failure, and fast reroute [RFC4090]), Virtual Private Network (VPN) service (such as Layer 3 VPNs [RFC4364] or Ethernet VPNs [RFC7432]), or Pseudowires [RFC3985].

Delivering services over a network in an optimal way requires coordination in the way that network resources are allocated to support the services. A PCE-based central control can consider the whole network and all components of a service at once when planning how to deliver the service. It can then use PCEP to manage the network resources and to install the necessary associations between those resources.

4. Protocol Implications

PCEP is push-pull protocol that is designed to move requests and responses between a server (the PCE) and Path Computation Clients (PCCs - the network elements). In particular, it has a message (PCInitiate [I-D.ietf-pce-pce-initiated-lsp]) that can be sent by the PCE to install state or cause actions at the PCC, and a response message (PCRpt) that is used to confirm the request.

As such, no substantial changes to PCEP are required to support the concept of a PCE-based controller. The only work needed will be small extensions to carry additional or specific information elements for the individual use cases. Where possible, consistent with the general principles of how protocols are extended, any additions to the protocol should be made in a generic way such that they are open to use in a range of applications.

It is anticipated that new documents will be produced for each use case dependent on support and demand. Such documents will explain the use case and define the necessary protocol extensions.

5. Security Considerations

Security considerations for a PCE-based controller are little different from those for any other PCE system. That is, the operation relies heavily on the use and security of PCEP and so consideration should be given to the security features discussed in [RFC5440] and the additional mechanisms described in [I-D.ietf-pce-pceps].

It should be observed that the trust model of a network that operates with out a control plane is different from one with a control plane. The conventional "chain of trust" used with a control plane is replaced by individual trust relationships between the controller and each individual NE. This model may be considerably easier to manage and so is more likely to be operated with a high level of security. However debate will rage over overall system security and the opportunity for attacks in an architecture with a central controller since the network can be vulnerable to denial of service attacks on the controller, and the forwarding system may be harmed by attacks on the messages sent to individual routers. In short, while the interactions with a PCE-based controller are not substantially different from those in any other SDN architecture, the security implications of SDN are still open for discussion. The IRTF's SDN Research Group (SDNRG) continues to discuss this topic.

It is expected that each new document that is produced for a specific use case will also include considerations of the security impacts of the use of a PCE-based central controller on the network type and services being managed.

6. Manageability Considerations

The architecture described in this document is a management architecture: the PCE-based controller is a management component that controls the network through a southbound management protocol (PCEP).

RFC 5440 [RFC5440] contains a substantive manageability considerations section that examines how a PCE-based system and a PCE-enabled system may be managed. A MIB module for PCEP was published as RFC 7420 [RFC7420] and a YANG module for PCEP has also been proposed [I-D.pkd-pce-pcep-yang].

7. IANA Considerations

This document makes no requests for IANA action.

8. Contributors

The following people contributed to discussions that led to the development of this document:

           Cyril Margaria
           Email: cmargaria@juniper.net

           Sudhir Cheruathur
           Email: scheruathur@juniper.net

           Dhruv Dhody
           Email: dhruv.dhody@huawei.com

           Daniel King
           Email: daniel@olddog.co.uk

           Iftekhar Hussain
           Email: IHussain@infinera.com

           Anurag Sharma
           Email: AnSharma@infinera.com

           Eric Wu
           Email: eric.wu@huawei.com

9. Acknowledgements

The ideas in this document owe a lot to the work started by the authors of [I-D.zhao-teas-pcecc-use-cases] and [I-D.zhao-pce-pcep-extension-for-pce-controller]. The authors of this document fully acknowledge the prior work and thank those involved for opening the discussion. The individuals concerned are: King Ke, Luyuan Fang, Chao Zhou, Boris Zhang, Zhenbin Li.

This document has benefited from the discussions within a small ad hoc design team the members of which are listed as document contributors.

10. References

10.1. Normative References

[RFC4655] Farrel, A., Vasseur, J. and J. Ash, "A Path Computation Element (PCE)-Based Architecture", RFC 4655, DOI 10.17487/RFC4655, August 2006.

10.2. Informative References

[I-D.ietf-pce-pce-initiated-lsp] Crabbe, E., Minei, I., Sivabalan, S. and R. Varga, "PCEP Extensions for PCE-initiated LSP Setup in a Stateful PCE Model", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-pce-pce-initiated-lsp-05, October 2015.
[I-D.ietf-pce-pceps] Lopez, D., Dios, O., Wu, W. and D. Dhody, "Secure Transport for PCEP", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-pce-pceps-09, March 2016.
[I-D.ietf-pce-stateful-pce] Crabbe, E., Minei, I., Medved, J. and R. Varga, "PCEP Extensions for Stateful PCE", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-pce-stateful-pce-14, March 2016.
[I-D.ietf-spring-segment-routing] Filsfils, C., Previdi, S., Decraene, B., Litkowski, S. and R. Shakir, "Segment Routing Architecture", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-spring-segment-routing-07, December 2015.
[I-D.pkd-pce-pcep-yang] Dhody, D., Hardwick, J., Beeram, V. and J. Tantsura, "A YANG Data Model for Path Computation Element Communications Protocol (PCEP)", Internet-Draft draft-pkd-pce-pcep-yang-05, January 2016.
[I-D.zhao-pce-pcep-extension-for-pce-controller] Zhao, Q., Li, Z., Dhody, D. and C. Zhou, "PCEP Procedures and Protocol Extensions for Using PCE as a Central Controller (PCECC) of LSPs", Internet-Draft draft-zhao-pce-pcep-extension-for-pce-controller-03, March 2016.
[I-D.zhao-teas-pcecc-use-cases] Zhao, Q., Li, Z., Ke, Z., Fang, L., Zhou, C. and T. Communications, "The Use Cases for Using PCE as the Central Controller(PCECC) of LSPs", Internet-Draft draft-zhao-teas-pcecc-use-cases-00, March 2016.
[RFC2702] Awduche, D., Malcolm, J., Agogbua, J., O'Dell, M. and J. McManus, "Requirements for Traffic Engineering Over MPLS", RFC 2702, DOI 10.17487/RFC2702, September 1999.
[RFC3985] Bryant, S. and P. Pate, "Pseudo Wire Emulation Edge-to-Edge (PWE3) Architecture", RFC 3985, DOI 10.17487/RFC3985, March 2005.
[RFC4090] Pan, P., Swallow, G. and A. Atlas, "Fast Reroute Extensions to RSVP-TE for LSP Tunnels", RFC 4090, DOI 10.17487/RFC4090, May 2005.
[RFC4364] Rosen, E. and Y. Rekhter, "BGP/MPLS IP Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)", RFC 4364, DOI 10.17487/RFC4364, February 2006.
[RFC4427] Mannie, E. and D. Papadimitriou, "Recovery (Protection and Restoration) Terminology for Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS)", RFC 4427, DOI 10.17487/RFC4427, March 2006.
[RFC5440] Vasseur, JP. and JL. Le Roux, "Path Computation Element (PCE) Communication Protocol (PCEP)", RFC 5440, DOI 10.17487/RFC5440, March 2009.
[RFC6805] King, D. and A. Farrel, "The Application of the Path Computation Element Architecture to the Determination of a Sequence of Domains in MPLS and GMPLS", RFC 6805, DOI 10.17487/RFC6805, November 2012.
[RFC7025] Otani, T., Ogaki, K., Caviglia, D., Zhang, F. and C. Margaria, "Requirements for GMPLS Applications of PCE", RFC 7025, DOI 10.17487/RFC7025, September 2013.
[RFC7399] Farrel, A. and D. King, "Unanswered Questions in the Path Computation Element Architecture", RFC 7399, DOI 10.17487/RFC7399, October 2014.
[RFC7420] Koushik, A., Stephan, E., Zhao, Q., King, D. and J. Hardwick, "Path Computation Element Communication Protocol (PCEP) Management Information Base (MIB) Module", RFC 7420, DOI 10.17487/RFC7420, December 2014.
[RFC7432] Sajassi, A., Aggarwal, R., Bitar, N., Isaac, A., Uttaro, J., Drake, J. and W. Henderickx, "BGP MPLS-Based Ethernet VPN", RFC 7432, DOI 10.17487/RFC7432, February 2015.
[RFC7491] King, D. and A. Farrel, "A PCE-Based Architecture for Application-Based Network Operations", RFC 7491, DOI 10.17487/RFC7491, March 2015.
[RFC7665] Halpern, J. and C. Pignataro, "Service Function Chaining (SFC) Architecture", RFC 7665, DOI 10.17487/RFC7665, October 2015.

Authors' Addresses

Adrian Farrel (editor) Juniper Networks EMail: adrian@olddog.co.uk
Quintin Zhao (editor) Huawei Technologies 125 Nagog Technology Park Acton, MA 01719 USA EMail: quintin.zhao@huawei.com
Robin Li Huawei Technologies Huawei Bld., No.156 Beiqing Road Beijing, 100095 China EMail: lizhenbin@huawei.com
Chao Zhou Cisco Systems EMail: chao.zhou@cisco.com