Network Working Group M. Pounsett
Internet-Draft Rightside Group, Ltd.
Updates: 6781 (if approved) October 31, 2016
Intended status: Informational
Expires: May 4, 2017

Change of Operator Procedures for Automatically Published DNSSEC Zones


Section of [RFC6781] "DNSSEC Operational Practices, version 2" describes a procedure for transitioning a DNSSEC signed zone from one (cooperative) operator to another. The procedure works well in many situations, but makes the assumption that it is feasible for the two operators to simultaneously publish slightly different versions of the zone being transferred. In some cases, such as with TLD registries, operational considerations require both operators to publish identical versions of the zone for the duration of the transition. This document describes a modified transition procedure which can be used in these cases.

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction

The process described in "DNSSEC Operational Practices, version 2" ([RFC6781]), section for cooperating DNS operators to move a DNSSEC signed zone cannot be followed in all cases. When operators are moving a zone that is automatically published and/or changes rapidly, such as with a TLD or any other zone published from a registration database, it may not be feasible for the operators to publish different versions of the same zone.

In these cases, it would be necessary for one or both operators to have the capability to add, remove, or alter arbitrary records inline along the zone transfer path (such as modifying the NSSet, and stripping RRSIGs). It cannot be assumed that this capability exists, since few (if any) common DNS implementations include these functions, and many custom implementations exist whose feature sets cannot be predicted.

As a result, it must be assumed that operators moving an automatically generated or frequently updated zone must be able to publish an identical zone while transitioning it from one operator to another.

2. Changing Between Cooperating DNS Operators

2.1. Assumptions

In this scenario, it is assumed that the operators will not exchange any private key material, but are otherwise fully cooperative. It is also assumed that the zone publishing process will be transferred between operators independently of the DNS operations. The simplest case is to transition the publishing process after the DNS operations move has been completed, and is the order that is assumed in this document, although the reverse order is possible. During the transition, the losing operator will provide the zone contents to the gaining operator by some automatic means (typically zone transfer). The transition of the publishing process is out of scope of this document.

2.2. Procedure Overview

The DNS operations transition uses a modified pre-publish KSK and ZSK rollover, whereby the losing operator pre-publishes the public KSK and ZSK of the gaining operator. Part way through the transition, the losing operator stops signing the zone and begins providing an unsecure zone to the gaining operator, who begins signing. Once that is done, the gaining operator continues to post-publish the public keys of the losing operator until the TTLs of the original RRSIGs expire.

2.3. Procedure Notation

In the timeline below, the losing operator is operator A, and the gaining operator is operator B. Records representing data generated by each operator are appended with the operator letter. DNSKEY records are appended with the keytype; DNSKEY_Z is a ZSK, and DNSKEY_K is a KSK. RRSIGs are appended with the DNSKEY type they were generated from, as well as the operator who generated them; RRSIGs include in parentheses the RRSET type that they sign. For example, RRSIG_Z_A(SOA) is the RRSIG generated with DNSKEY_Z_A and signs the SOA record.

2.4. The Procedure

The KSK and ZSK rollover from the losing to gaining operator keys involves six stages as described in Figure 1 and Figure 2.


The initial version of the zone. This zone is published and signed by the losing operator. During this stage the gaining operator should begin serving the zone on its name servers.

Operator A begins pre-publishing DNSKEY_K_B and DNSKEY_Z_B. At the same time, the NS set at the apex of the zone is changed to NS_B to begin moving traffic to the gaining name servers. The operators MUST wait at least the time it takes for the data to propagate to all authoritative servers plus the TTL of the DNSKEY set before the Signing Migration step can be begun.

The parent changes the prent NS set to be NS_B, to match the NS set at the apex of the child zone. The parent also begins publishing the DS record for the gaining operator. The operators MUST wait at least the time it takes for the data to propagate to all the parent servers plus the TTL of the DS set before the Signing Migration step can be begun.

| initial            | pre-publish        | re-delegation      |
| Parent:            | Parent:            | Parent:            |
|  NS_A              |  NS_A              |                    |
|                    |                    |  NS_B              |
|  DS_A              |  DS_A              |  DS_A              |
|                    |                    |  DS_B              |
| Child:             | Child:             | Child:             |
| Published by A     | Published by A     | Published by A     |
| Signed by A        | Signed by A        | Signed by A        |
|  SOA_A0            |  SOA_A1            |  SOA_A1            |
|  RRSIG_Z_A(SOA)    |  RRSIG_Z_A(SOA)    |  RRSIG_Z_A(SOA)    |
|                    |                    |                    |
|  NS_A              |                    |                    |
|                    |  NS_B              |  NS_B              |
|  RRSIG_Z_A(NS)     |  RRSIG_Z_A(NS)     |  RRSIG_Z_A(NS)     |
|                    |                    |                    |
|  DNSKEY_Z_A        |  DNSKEY_Z_A        |  DNSKEY_Z_A        |
|                    |  DNSKEY_Z_B        |  DNSKEY_Z_B        |
|  DNSKEY_K_A        |  DNSKEY_K_A        |  DNSKEY_K_A        |
|                    |  DNSKEY_K_B        |  DNSKEY_K_B        |

Figure 1: Rollover for Cooperating Operators, Steps 1-3

Signing Migration

Once the new (pre-published) DNSKEY records and DS_B are in the caches of validating clients the operators can swap signing duties; RRSIG_K_B and RRSIG_Z_B become the active signing keys. When the ganinig operator begins signing the zone, either they MUST strip the RRSIGs of the losing operator, or the losing operator MUST begin producing an unsigned zone. The operators MUST wait at least the largest TTL of any RRSIG in the zone before moving on to the Old DS Removal step.
Old DS Removal

The parent now removes the old DS_A from its zone. The operators MUST wait at least the TTL of the DS set before moving on to the Post Migration step.
Post Migration

After the old DS set has expired from caches the gaining operator may remove the losing operator DNSKEYs from the zone. At this time it is assumed that the gaining operator severs whatever process was transferring zone data from the losing operator, and the gaining operator begins publishing the zone.

| signing migration  | old DS removal     | post migration     |
|  Parent:           | Parent:            | Parent:            |
|                    |                    |                    |
|   NS_B             |  NS_B              |  NS_B              |
|   DS_A             |                    |                    |
|   DS_B             |  DS_B              |  DS_B              |
| Child:             | Child:             | Child:             |
| Published by A     | Published by A     | Published by B     |
| Signed by B        | Signed by B        | Signed by B        |
|  SOA_A2            |  SOA_A2            |  SOA_B0            |
|  RRSIG_Z_B(SOA)    |  RRSIG_Z_B(SOA)    |  RRSIG_Z_B(SOA)    |
|                    |                    |                    |
|                    |                    |                    |
|  NS_B              |  NS_B              |  NS_B              |
|  RRSIG_Z_B(NS)     |  RRSIG_Z_B(NS)     |  RRSIG_Z_B(NS)     |
|                    |                    |                    |
|  DNSKEY_Z_A        |  DNSKEY_Z_A        |                    |
|  DNSKEY_Z_B        |  DNSKEY_Z_B        |  DNSKEY_Z_B        |
|  DNSKEY_K_A        |  DNSKEY_K_A        |                    |
|  DNSKEY_K_B        |  DNSKEY_K_B        |  DNSKEY_K_B        |

Figure 2: Rollover for Cooperating Operators, Steps 4-6

3. Security Considerations

This document raises no new security considerations. Please see Section 6 of [RFC6781].

4. IANA Considerations

This document has no actions for IANA.

5. Normative References

[RFC6781] Kolkman, O., Mekking, W. and R. Gieben, "DNSSEC Operational Practices, Version 2", RFC 6781, DOI 10.17487/RFC6781, December 2012.

Appendix A. Document Source

  • [RFC Editor: Please remove this section before publication.]

This document is maintained at Github at <>. Issue reports and pull requests are gratefully accepted here.

The XML and TXT versions of this document are generated from Markdown using mmark by Miek Gieben. mmark is available at <>.

Appendix B. Changelist

  • [RFC Editor: Please remove this section before publication.]

B.1. Version pounsett-02

  • grammar and spelling nits
  • separate procedural section into subsections
  • improve notation explanation
  • rename procedure steps for clarity
  • add prose description of operator key roll

B.2. Version pounsett-01

  • grammar and spelling nits
  • added Security Considerations section
  • added IANA Considerations section
  • added Document Source and Changelist
  • call out publishing migration as out of scope

B.3. Version pounsett-00

Initial Submission

Author's Address

Matthew Pounsett Rightside Group, Ltd. EMail: