Network Working Group P. Pfister
Internet-Draft IJ. Wijnands
Intended status: Standards Track S. Venaas
Expires: January 9, 2017 Cisco Systems
M. Stenberg
July 8, 2016

BIER Ingress Multicast Flow Overlay using Multicast Listener Discovery Protocols
draft-pfister-bier-mld-01

Abstract

This document specifies the ingress part of a multicast flow overlay for BIER networks. Using existing multicast listener discovery protocols, it enables multicast membership information sharing from egress routers, acting as listeners, toward ingress routers, acting as queriers. Ingress routers keep per-egress-router state, used to construct the BIER bit mask associated with IP multicast packets entering the BIER domain.

Status of This Memo

This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

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This Internet-Draft will expire on January 9, 2017.

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction

The Bit Index Explicit Replication (BIER - [I-D.ietf-bier-architecture]) forwarding technique enables IP multicast transport across a BIER domain. When receiving or originating a packet, ingress routers have to construct a bit mask indicating which BIER egress routers located within the same BIER domain will receive the packet. A stateless approach would consist in forwarding all incoming packets toward all egress routers, which would in turn make a forwarding decision based on local information. But any more efficient approach would require ingress routers to keep some state about egress routers multicast membership information, hence requiring state sharing from egress routers toward ingress routers.

This document specifies how to use the Multicast Listener Discovery protocol version 2 [RFC3810] (resp. the Internet Group Management protocol version 3 [RFC3376]) as the ingress part of a BIER multicast flow overlay (BIER layering is described in [I-D.ietf-bier-architecture]) for IPv6 (resp. IPv4). It enables multicast membership information sharing from egress routers, acting as listeners, toward ingress routers, acting as queriers. Ingress routers keep per-egress-router state, used to construct the BIER bit mask associated with IP multicast packets entering the BIER domain.

This specification is applicable to both IP version 4 and version 6. It therefore specifies two separate mechanisms operating independently. For the sake of simplicity, the rest of this document uses IPv6 terminology. It can be applied to IPv4 by replacing 'MLDv2' with 'IGMPv3', and following specific requirements when explicitly stated.

2. Terminology

In this document, the key words "MAY", "MUST", "MUST NOT", "RECOMMENDED", and "SHOULD", are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

The terms "Bit-Forwarding Router" (BFR), "Bit-Forwarding Egress Router" (BFER), "Bit-Forwarding Ingress Router" (BFIR), "BFR-id" and "BFR-Prefix" are to be interpreted as described in [I-D.ietf-bier-architecture].

Additionally, the following definitions are used:

BIER Multicast Listener Discovery (BMLD):
The modified version of MLD specified in this document.
BMLD Querier:
A BFR implementing the Querier part of this specification. A BMLD Node MAY be both a Querier and a Listener.
BMLD Listener:
A BFR implementing the Listener part of this specification. A BMLD Node MAY be both a Querier and a Listener.

3. Overview

This document proposes to use the mechanisms described in MLDv2 in order to enable multicast membership information sharing from BFERs toward BFIRs within a given BIER domain. BMLD queries (resp. reports) are sent over BIER toward all BMLD Nodes (resp. BMLD Queriers) using modified MLDv2 messages which IP destination is set to a configured 'all BMLD Nodes' (resp. 'all BMLD Queriers') IP multicast address.

By running MLDv2 instances with per-listener explicit tracking, BMLD Queriers are able to map BMLD Listeners with MLDv2 membership states. This state is then used to construct the set of BFERs associated with each incoming IP multicast data packet.

4. Applicability Statement

BMLD runs on top of a BIER Layer and provides the ingress part of a BIER multicast flow overlay, i.e, it specifies how BFIRs construct the set of BFERs for each ingress IP multicast data packet. The BFER part of the Multicast Flow Overlay is out of scope of this document.

The BIER Layer MUST be able to transport BMLD messages toward all BMLD Queriers and Listeners. Such packets are IP multicast packets with a BFR-Prefix as source address, a multicast destination address, and containing a MLDv2 message.

BMLD only requires state to be kept by Queriers, and is therefore more scalable than PIMv2 [RFC7761] in terms of overall state, but is also likely to be less scalable than PIMv2 in terms of the amount of control traffic and the size of the state that is kept by individual routers.

This specification is applicable to both IP version 4 and version 6. It therefore specifies two separate mechanisms operating independently. For the sake of simplicity, this document uses IPv6 terminology. It can be applied to IPv4 by replacing 'MLDv2' with 'IGMPv3', and following specific requirements when explicitly stated.

5. Querier and Listener Specifications

Routers desiring to receive IP multicast traffic (e.g., for their own use, or for forwarding) MUST behave as BMLD Listeners. Routers receiving IP multicast traffic from outside the BIER domain, or originating multicast traffic, MUST behave as BMLD Queriers.

BMLD Queriers (resp. BMLD Listeners) MUST act as MLDv2 Queriers (resp. MLDv2 Listeners) as specified in [RFC3810] unless stated otherwise in this section.

5.1. Configuration Parameters

Both Queriers and Listeners MUST operate as BFIRs and BFERs within the BIER domain in order to send and receive BMLD messages. They MUST therefore be configured accordingly, as specified in [I-D.ietf-bier-architecture].

All Listeners MUST be configured with a 'all BMLD Queriers' multicast address and the BFR-ids of all the BMLD Queriers. This is used by Listeners to send BMLD Reports over BIER toward all Queriers.

All Queriers MUST be configured with a 'all BMLD Nodes' multicast address and the BFR-ids of all the Queriers and Listeners. This information is used by Queriers to send BMLD queries over BIER toward all BMLD Nodes.

Note that BMLD (unlike MLDv2) makes use of per-instance configured multicast group addresses rather than well-known addresses so that multiple instances of BMLD (using different group addresses) can be run simultaneously within the same BIER domain. Configured group addresses MAY be obtained from allocated IP prefixes using [RFC3306].

IP packets coming from outside of the BIER domain and having a destination address set to the configured 'all BMLD Queriers' or the 'all BMLD Nodes' group address MUST be dropped. It is RECOMMENDED that these configured addresses have a limited scope, enforcing this behavior by scope-based filtering on BIER domain's egress interfaces.

5.2. MLDv2 instances.

BMLD Queriers MUST run a MLDv2 Querier instance with per-host tracking, which means they keep track of the MLDv2 state associated with each BMLD Listener. For that purpose, Listeners are identified by their respective BFR-Prefix, used as IP source address in all BMLD reports.

BMLD Listeners MUST run a MLDv2 Listener instance expressing their interest in the multicast traffic they are supposed to receive for local use or forwarding.

BMLD Listeners and Queriers MUST NOT run the MLDv1 (IGMPv2 and IGMPv1 for IPv4) backward compatibility procedures.

5.2.1. Sending Queries

BMLD Queries are IP packets sent over BIER by BMLD Queriers:

5.2.2. Sending Reports

BMLD Reports are IP packets sent over BIER by BMLD Listeners:

5.2.3. Receiving Queries

BMLD Queriers and Listeners MUST check the destination address of all the IP packets that are received or forwarded over BIER whenever their own BIER bit is set in the packet. If the destination address is equal to the 'all BMLD Nodes' group address the packet is processed as specified in this section.

If the IPv6 (resp. IPv4) packet contains an ICMPv6 (resp. IGMP) message of type 'Multicast Listener Query' (resp. of type 'Membership Query'), it is processed by the MLDv2 (resp. IGMPv3) instance run by the BMLD Querier. It MUST be dropped otherwise.

During the MLDv2 processing, the packet MUST NOT be checked against the MLDv2 consistency conditions (i.e., the presence of the router alert option, the TTL equaling 1 and, for IPv6 only, the source address being link-local).

5.2.4. Receiving Reports

BMLD Queriers MUST check the destination address of all the IP packets that are received or forwarded over BIER whenever their own BIER bit is set. If the destination address is equal to the 'all BMLD Queriers' the packet is processed as specified in this section.

If the IPv6 (resp. IPv4) packet contains an ICMPv6 (resp. IGMP) message of type 'Multicast Listener Report Message v2' (resp. 'Version 3 Membership Report'), it is processed by the MLDv2 (resp. IGMPv3) instance run by the BMLD Querier. It MUST be dropped otherwise.

During the MLDv2 processing, the packet MUST NOT be checked against the MLDv2 consistency conditions (i.e., the presence of the router alert option, the TTL equaling 1 and, for IPv6 only, the source address being link-local).

5.3. Packet Forwarding

BMLD Queriers configure the BIER Layer using the information obtained using BMLD, which associates BMLD Listeners (identified by their BFR-Prefixes) with their respective MLDv2 membership state.

More specifically, the MLDv2 state associated with each BMLD Listener is provided to the BIER layer such that whenever a multicast packet enters the BIER domain, if that packet matches the membership information from a BMLD Listener, its BFR-id is added to the set of BFR-ids the packet should be forwarded to by the BIER-Layer.

6. Security Considerations

BMLD makes use of IP MLDv2 messages transported over BIER in order to configure the BIER Layer of BFIRs. BMLD messages MUST be secured, either by relying on physical or link-layer security, by securing the IP packets (e.g., using IPSec [RFC4301]), or by relying on security features provided by the BIER Layer.

Whenever an attacker would be able to spoof the identity of a router, it could:

7. IANA Considerations

This specification does not require any action from IANA.

8. References

8.1. Normative References

[RFC2113] Katz, D., "IP Router Alert Option", RFC 2113, DOI 10.17487/RFC2113, February 1997.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997.
[RFC3376] Cain, B., Deering, S., Kouvelas, I., Fenner, B. and A. Thyagarajan, "Internet Group Management Protocol, Version 3", RFC 3376, DOI 10.17487/RFC3376, October 2002.
[RFC3810] Vida, R. and L. Costa, "Multicast Listener Discovery Version 2 (MLDv2) for IPv6", RFC 3810, DOI 10.17487/RFC3810, June 2004.
[I-D.ietf-bier-architecture] Wijnands, I., Rosen, E., Dolganow, A., Przygienda, T. and S. Aldrin, "Multicast using Bit Index Explicit Replication", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-bier-architecture-03, January 2016.

8.2. Informative References

[RFC2460] Deering, S. and R. Hinden, "Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification", RFC 2460, DOI 10.17487/RFC2460, December 1998.
[RFC2711] Partridge, C. and A. Jackson, "IPv6 Router Alert Option", RFC 2711, DOI 10.17487/RFC2711, October 1999.
[RFC3306] Haberman, B. and D. Thaler, "Unicast-Prefix-based IPv6 Multicast Addresses", RFC 3306, DOI 10.17487/RFC3306, August 2002.
[RFC4301] Kent, S. and K. Seo, "Security Architecture for the Internet Protocol", RFC 4301, DOI 10.17487/RFC4301, December 2005.
[RFC7761] Fenner, B., Handley, M., Holbrook, H., Kouvelas, I., Parekh, R., Zhang, Z. and L. Zheng, "Protocol Independent Multicast - Sparse Mode (PIM-SM): Protocol Specification (Revised)", STD 83, RFC 7761, DOI 10.17487/RFC7761, March 2016.

Appendix A. Acknowledgements

Comments concerning this document are very welcome.

Authors' Addresses

Pierre Pfister Cisco Systems Paris, France EMail: pierre.pfister@darou.fr
IJsbrand Wijnands Cisco Systems De Kleetlaan 6a Diegem, 1831 Belgium EMail: ice@cisco.com
Stig Venaas Cisco Systems Tasman Drive San Jose, CA 95134 USA EMail: stig@cisco.com
Markus Stenberg Helsinki, 00930 Finland EMail: markus.stenberg@iki.fi