V6OPS Working Group P. Matthews
Internet-Draft Nokia
Intended status: Informational V. Kuarsingh
Expires: May 17, 2017 Cisco
November 13, 2016

Routing-Related Design Choices for IPv6 Networks


This document presents advice on certain routing-related design choices that arise when designing IPv6 networks (both dual-stack and IPv6-only). The intended audience is someone designing an IPv6 network who is knowledgeable about best current practices around IPv4 network design, and wishes to learn the corresponding practices for IPv6.

Status of This Memo

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This Internet-Draft will expire on May 17, 2017.

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Copyright (c) 2016 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved.

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction

This document discusses routing-related design choices that arise when designing an IPv6-only or dual-stack network. The focus is on choices that do not come up when designing an IPv4-only network. The document presents each choice and the alternatives, and then discusses the pros and cons of the alternatives in detail. Where consensus currently exists around the best practice, this is documented; otherwise the document simply summarizes the current state of the discussion. Thus this document serves to both document the reasoning behind best current practices for IPv6, and to allow a designer to make an informed choice where no such consensus exists.

The design choices presented apply to both Service Provider and Enterprise network environments. Where choices have selection criteria which differ between the Service Provider and the Enterprise environment, this is noted. The designer is encouraged to ensure that they familiarize themselves with any of the discussed technologies to ensure the best selection is made for their environment.

This document does not present advice on strategies for adding IPv6 to a network, nor does it discuss transition in these areas, see [RFC6180] for general advice,[RFC6782] for wireline service providers, [RFC6342]for mobile network providers, [RFC5963] for exchange point operators, [RFC6883] for content providers, and both [RFC4852] and [RFC7381] for enterprises. Nor does this document discuss the particulars of creating an IPv6 addressing plan; for advice in this area, see [RFC5375] or [v6-addressing-plan]. The document focuses on unicast routing design only and does not cover multicast or the issues involved in running MPLS over IPv6 transport

Section 2 presents and discusses a number of design choices. Section 3 discusses some general themes that run through these choices.

2. Design Choices

Each subsection below presents a design choice and discusses the pros and cons of the various options. If there is consensus in the industry for a particular option, then the consensus position is noted.

2.1. Addresses

This section discusses the choice of addresses for router loopbacks and links between routers. It does not cover the choice of addresses for end hosts.

In IPv6, an interface is always assigned a Link-Local Address (LLA) [RFC4291]. The link-local address can only be used for communicating with devices that are on-link, so often one or more additional addresses are assigned which are able to communicate off-link. This additional address or addresses can be one of three types:

This document uses the term "multi-hop address" to collectively refer to these three types of addresses.

PI GUAs are, for many situations, the most flexible of these choices. Their main disadvantages are that a regional address registry will only allocate them to organizations that meet certain qualifications, and one must pay an annual fee. These disadvantages mean that many smaller organization may not qualify or be willing to pay for these addresses.

PA GUAs have the advantage that they are usually provided at no extra charge when you contract with an upstream provider. However, they have the disadvantage that, when switching upstream providers, one must give back the old addresses and get new addresses from the new provider ("renumbering"). Though IPv6 has mechanisms to make renumbering easier than IPv4, these techniques are not generally applicable to routers and renumbering is still fairly hard [RFC5887] [RFC6879] [RFC7010] . PA GUAs also have the disadvantage that it is not easy to have multiple upstream providers ("multi-homing") if they are used (see "Ingress Filtering Problem" in [RFC5220] ).

ULAs have the advantage that they are extremely easy to obtain and cost nothing. However, they have the disadvantage that they cannot be routed on the Internet, so must be used only within a limited scope. In many situations, this is not a problem, but in certain situations this can be problematic. Though there is currently no document that describes these situations, many of them are similar to those described in [RFC6752]. See also [I-D.ietf-v6ops-ula-usage-recommendations].

Not discussed in this document is the possibility of using the technology described in [RFC6296] to work around some of the limitations of PA GUAs and ULAs.

2.1.1. Where to Use Addresses

As mentioned above, all interfaces in IPv6 always have a link-local address. This section addresses the question of when and where to assign multi-hop addresses in addition to the LLA. We consider four options:

  1. Use only link-local addresses on all router interfaces.
  2. Assign multi-hop addresses to all link interfaces on each router, and use only a link-local address on the loopback interfaces.
  3. Assign multi-hop addresses to the loopback interface on each router, and use only a link-local address on all link interfaces.
  4. Assign multi-hop addresses to both link and loopback interfaces on each router.

Option (a) means that the router cannot be reached (ping, management, etc.) from farther than one-hop away. The authors are not aware of anyone using this option.

Option (b) means that the loopback interfaces are effectively useless, since link-local addresses cannot be used for the purposes that loopback interfaces are usually used for. So option (b) degenerates into option (d).

Thus the real choice comes down to option (c) vs. option (d).

Option (c) has two advantages over option (d). The first advantage is ease of configuration. In a network with a large number of links, the operator can just assign one multi-hop address to each router and then enable the IGP, without going through the tedious process of assigning and tracking the addresses on each link. The second advantage is security. Since packets with link-local addresses cannot be should not be routed, it is very difficult to attack the associated nodes from an off-link device. This implies less effort around maintaining security ACLs.

Countering these advantages are various disadvantages to option (c) compared with option (d):

It should be noted that it is quite possible for the same link-local address to be assigned to multiple interfaces. This can happen because the MAC address is duplicated (due to manufacturing process defaults or the use of virtualization), because a device deliberately re-uses automatically-assigned link-local addresses on different links, or because an operator manually assigns the same easy-to-type link-local address to multiple interfaces. All these are allowed in IPv6 as long as the addresses are used on different links.

For more discussion on the pros and cons, see [RFC7404]. See also [RFC5375] for IPv6 unicast address assignment considerations.

Today, most operators use option (d).

2.1.2. Which Addresses to Use

Having considered above whether or not to use a "multi-hop address", we now consider which of the addresses to use.

When selecting between these three "multi-hop address" types, one needs to consider exactly how they will be used. An important consideration is how Internet traffic is carried across the core of the network. There are two main options: (1) the classic approach where Internet traffic is carried as unlabeled traffic hop-by-hop across the network, and (2) the more recent approach where Internet traffic is carried inside an MPLS LSP (typically as part of a L3 VPN).

Under the classic approach:

Under the MPLS approach:

2.2. Interfaces

2.2.1. Mix IPv4 and IPv6 on the Same Layer-3 Interface?

If a network is going to carry both IPv4 and IPv6 traffic, as many networks do today, then a question arises: Should an operator mix IPv4 and IPv6 traffic or keep them separated? More specifically, should the design:

  1. Mix IPv4 and IPv6 traffic on the same layer-3 interface, OR
  2. Separate IPv4 and IPv6 by using separate interfaces (e.g., two physical links or two VLANs on the same link)?

Option (a) implies a single layer-3 interface at each end of the connection with both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses; while option (b) implies two layer-3 interfaces at each end, one for IPv4 addresses and one with IPv6 addresses.

The advantages of option (a) include:

For these reasons, there is a relatively strong consensus in the operator community that option (a) is the preferred way to go. Most networks today use option (a) wherever possible.

However, there can be times when option (b) is the pragmatic choice. Most commonly, option (b) is used to work around limitations in network equipment. One big example is the generally poor level of support today for individual statistics on IPv4 traffic vs IPv6 traffic when option (a) is used. Other, device-specific, limitations exist as well. It is expected that these limitations will go away as support for IPv6 matures, making option (b) less and less attractive until the day that IPv4 is finally turned off.

2.3. Static Routes

2.3.1. Link-Local Next-Hop in a Static Route?

For the most part, the use of static routes in IPv6 parallels their use in IPv4. There is, however, one exception, which revolves around the choice of next-hop address in the static route. Specifically, should an operator:

  1. Use the far-end’s link-local address as the next-hop address, OR
  2. Use the far-end’s GUA/ULA address as the next-hop address?

Recall that the IPv6 specs for OSPF [RFC5340] and ISIS [RFC5308] dictate that they always use link-locals for next-hop addresses. For static routes, [RFC4861] section 8 says:

This implies that using a GUA or ULA as the next hop will prevent a router from sending Redirect messages for packets that "hit" this static route. All this argues for using a link-local as the next-hop address in a static route.

However, there are two cases where using a link-local address as the next-hop clearly does not work. One is when the static route is an indirect (or multi-hop) static route. The second is when the static route is redistributed into another routing protocol. In these cases, the above text from RFC 4861 notwithstanding, either a GUA or ULA must be used.

Furthermore, many network operators are concerned about the dependency of the default link-local address on an underlying MAC address, as described in the previous section.

Today most operators use GUAs as next-hop addresses.

2.4. IGPs

2.4.1. IGP Choice

One of the main decisions for a network operator looking to deploy IPv6 is the choice of IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol) within the network. The main options are OSPF, IS-IS and EIGRP. RIPng is another option, but very few networks run RIP in the core these days, so it is covered in a separate section below.

OSPF [RFC2328] [RFC5340] and IS-IS [RFC5120][RFC5120] are both standardized link-state protocols. Both protocols are widely supported by vendors, and both are widely deployed. By contrast, EIGRP [RFC7868] is a Cisco proprietary distance-vector protocol. EIGRP is rarely deployed in service-provider networks, but is quite common in enterprise networks, which is why it is discussed here.

It is out of scope for this document to describe all the differences between the three protocols; the interested reader can find books and websites that go into the differences in quite a bit of detail. Rather, this document simply highlights a few differences that can be important to consider when designing IPv6 or dual-stack networks.

Versions: There are two versions of OSPF: OSPFv2 and OSPFv3. The two versions share many concepts, are configured in a similar manner and seem very similar to most casual users, but have very different packet formats and other "under the hood" differences. The most important difference is that OSPFv2 will only route IPv4, while OSPFv3 will route both IPv4 and IPv6 (see [RFC5838]). OSPFv2 was by far the most widely deployed version of OSPF when this document was published. By contrast, both IS-IS and EIGRP have just a single version, which can route both IPv4 and IPv6.

Transport. IS-IS runs over layer 2 (e.g. Ethernet). This means that the functioning of IS-IS has no dependencies on the IP layer: if there is a problem at the IP layer (e.g. bad addresses), two routers can still exchange IS-IS packets. By contrast, OSPF and EIGRP both run over the IP layer. This means that the IP layer must be configured and working OSPF or EIGRP packets to be exchanged between routers. For EIGRP, the dependency on the IP layer is simple: EIGRP for IPv4 runs over IPv4, while EIGRP for IPv6 runs over IPv6. For OSPF, the story is more complex: OSPFv2 runs over IPv4, but OSPFv3 can run over either IPv4 or IPv6. Thus it is possible to route both IPv4 and IPv6 with OSPFv3 running over IPv6 or with OSPFv3 running over IPv4. This means that there are number of choices for how to run OSPF in a dual-stack network:

Summarization and MPLS: For most casual users, the three protocols are fairly similar in what they can do, with two glaring exceptions: summarization and MPLS. For summarization, both OSPF and IS-IS have the concept of summarization between areas, but the two area concepts are quite different, and an area design that works for one protocol will usually not work for the other. EIGRP has no area concept, but has the ability to summarize at any router. Thus a large network will typically have a very different OSPF, IS-IS and EIGRP designs, which is important to keep in mind if you are planning on using one protocol to route IPv4 and a different protocol for IPv6. The other difference is that OSPF and IS-IS both support RSVP-TE, a widely-used MPLS signaling protocol, while EIGRP does not: this is due to OSPF and IS-IS both being link-state protocols while EIGRP is a distance-vector protocol.

The table below sets out possible combinations of protocols to route both IPv4 and IPv6, and makes some observations on each combination. Here "EIGRP-v4" means "EIGRP for IPv4" and similarly for "EIGRP-v6". For OSPFv3, it is possible to run it over either IPv4 or IPv6; this is not indicated in the table.

IGP for IPv4 IGP for IPv6 Protocol separation Similar configuration possible Multiple Known Deployments
EIGRP-v4 OSPFv3 YES - ? (1)
EIGRP-v4 EIGRP-v6 - YES ? (2)

In the column "Multiple Known Deployments", a YES indicates that a significant number of production networks run this combination, with the number of such networks indicated in parentheses following, while a "?" indicates that the authors are only aware of one or two small networks that run this combination. Data for this column was gathered from an informal poll of operators on a number of mailing lists. This poll was not intended to be a thorough scientific study of IGP choices, but to provide a snapshot of known operator choices at the time of writing (Mid-2015) for successful production dual stack network deployments. There were twenty six (26) network implementations represented by 17 respondents. Some respondents provided information on more then one network or network deployment. Due to privacy considerations, the networks' represented and respondents are not listed in this document.

A number of combinations are marked as offering “Protocol separation”. These options use a different IGP protocol for IPv4 vs IPv6. With these options, a problem with routing IPv6 is unlikely to affect IPv4 or visa-versa. Some operator may consider this as a benefit when first introducing dual stack capabilities or for ongoing technical reasons.

Three combinations are marked “Similar configuration possible”. This means it is possible (but not required) to use very similar IGP configuration for IPv4 and IPv6: for example, the same area boundaries, area numbering, link costing, etc. If you are happy with your IPv4 IGP design, then this will likely be a consideration. By contrast, the options that use, for example, IS-IS for one IP version and OSPF for the other version will require considerably different configuration, and will also require the operations staff to become familiar with the difference between the two protocols.

It should be noted that a number of ISPs have run OSPF as their IPv4 IGP for quite a few years, but have selected IS-IS as their IPv6 IGP. However, there are very few (none?) that have made the reverse choice. This is, in part, because routers generally support more nodes in an IS-IS area than in the corresponding OSPF area, and because IS-IS is seen as more secure because it runs at layer 2.

2.4.2. IS-IS Topology Mode

When IS-IS is used to route both IPv4 and IPv6, then there is an additional choice of whether to run IS-IS in single-topology or multi-topology mode.

With single-topology mode (also known as Native mode) [RFC5308]:

With multi-topology mode [RFC5120]:

In the informal poll of operators, out of 12 production networks that ran IS-IS for both IPv4 and IPv6, 6 used single topology mode, 4 used multi-topology mode, and 2 did not specify. One motivation often cited by then operators for using Single Topology mode was because some device did not support multi-topology mode.

When asked, many people feel multi-topology mode is superior to single-topology mode because it provides greater flexibility at minimal extra cost. Never-the-less, as shown by the poll results, a number of operators have used single-topology mode successfully.

Note that this issue does not come up with OSPF, since there is nothing that corresponds to IS-IS single-topology mode with OSPF.

2.4.3. RIP / RIPng

A protocol option not described in the table above is RIP for IPv4 and RIPng for IPv6 [RFC2080]. These are distance vector protocols that are almost universally considered to be inferior to OSPF, IS-IS, or EIGRP for general use.

However, there is one specialized use where RIP/RIPng is still considered to be appropriate: in star topology networks where a single core device has lots and lots of links to edge devices and each edge device has only a single path back to the core. In such networks, the single path means that the limitations of RIP/RIPng are mostly not relevant and the very light-weight nature of RIP/RIPng gives it an advantage over the other protocols mentioned above. One concrete example of this scenario is the use of RIP/RIPng between cable modems and the CMTS.

2.5. BGP

2.5.1. Which Transport for Which Routes?

BGP these days is multi-protocol. It can carry routes of many different types, or more precisely, many different AFI/SAFI combinations. It can also carry routes when the BGP session, or more accurately the underlying TCP connection, runs over either IPv4 or IPv6 (here referred to as either "IPv4 transport" or "IPv6 transport"). Given this flexibility, one of the biggest questions when deploying BGP in a dual-stack network is the question of which route types should be carried over sessions using IPv4 transport and which should be carried over sessions using IPv6 transport.

This section discusses this question for the three most-commonly-used SAFI values: unlabeled (SAFI 1), labeled (SAFI 4) and VPN (SAFI 128). Though we do not explicitly discuss other SAFI values, many of the comments here can be applied to the other values.

Consider the following table:

Route Family Transport Comments
Unlabeled IPv4 IPv4 Works well
Unlabeled IPv4 IPv6 Next-hop
Unlabeled IPv6 IPv4 Next-hop
Unlabeled IPv6 IPv6 Works well
Labeled IPv4 IPv4 Works well
Labeled IPv4 IPv6 Next-hop
Labeled IPv6 IPv4 (6PE) Works well
Labeled IPv6 IPv6 Next-hop or MPLS over IPv6
VPN IPv4 IPv4 Works well
VPN IPv4 IPv6 Next-hop
VPN IPv6 IPv4 (6VPE) Works well
VPN IPv6 IPv6 Next-hop or MPLS over IPv6

The first column in this table lists various route families, where “unlabeled” means SAFI 1, “labeled” means the routes carry an MPLS label (SAFI 4, see [RFC3107]), and “VPN” means the routes are normally associated with a layer-3 VPN (SAFI 128, see [RFC4364]). The second column lists the protocol used to transport the BGP session, frequently specified by giving either an IPv4 or IPv6 address in the “neighbor” statement.

The third column comments on the combination in the first two columns:

Also, it is important to note that changing the set of address families being carried over a BGP session requires the BGP session to be reset (unless something like [I-D.ietf-idr-dynamic-cap] or [I-D.ietf-idr-bgp-multisession] is in use). This is generally more of an issue with eBGP sessions than iBGP sessions: for iBGP sessions it is common practice for a router to have two iBGP sessions, one to each member of a route reflector pair, so one can change the set of address families on first one of the sessions and then the other.

The following subsections discuss specific combinations in more detail. BGP Sessions for Unlabeled Routes

Unlabeled routes are commonly carried on eBGP sessions, as well as on iBGP sessions in networks where Internet traffic is carried unlabeled across the network.

In these scenarios, there are three reasonable choices:

  1. Carry unlabeled IPv4 and IPv6 routes over IPv4, OR
  2. Carry unlabeled IPv4 and IPv6 routes over IPv6, OR
  3. Carry unlabeled IPv4 routes over IPv4, and unlabeled IPv6 routes over IPv6

Options (a) and (b) have the advantage that one one BGP session is required between pairs of routers. However, option (c) is widely considered to be the best choice. There are several reasons for this :

Rarely, there are situations where option (c) is not practical. In those cases today, most operators use option (a), carrying both route types over a single BGP session. BGP sessions for Labeled or VPN Routes

When carrying labeled or VPN routes, the only widely-supported solution at time of writing is to carry both route types over IPv4. This may change in as MPLS over IPv6 becomes more widely implemented.

There are two options when carrying both over IPv4:

  1. Carry all routes over a single BGP session, OR
  2. Carry the routes over multiple BGP sessions (e.g. one for VPN IPv4 routes and one for VPN IPv6 routes)

Using a single session is usually simplest for an iBGP session going to a route reflector handling both route families. Using a single session here usually means that the BGP session will reset when changing the set of address families, but as noted above, this is usually not a problem when redundant route reflectors are involved.

In eBGP situations, two sessions are usually more appropriate. [JUSTIFICATION?]

2.5.2. eBGP Endpoints: Global or Link-Local Addresses?

When running eBGP over IPv6, there are two options for the addresses to use at each end of the eBGP session (or more properly, the underlying TCP session):

  1. Use link-local addresses for the eBGP session, OR
  2. Use global addresses for the eBGP session.

Note that the choice here is the addresses to use for the eBGP sessions, and not whether the link itself has global (or unique-local) addresses. In particular, it is quite possible for the eBGP session to use link-local addresses even when the link has global addresses.

The big attraction for option (a) is security: an eBGP session using link-local addresses is extremely difficult to attack from a device that is off-link. This provides very strong protection against TCP RST and similar attacks. Though there are other ways to get an equivalent level of security (e.g. GTSM [RFC5082], MD5 [RFC5925], or ACLs), these other ways require additional configuration which can be forgotten or potentially mis-configured.

However, there are a number of small disadvantages to using link-local addresses:

For these reasons, most operators today choose to have their eBGP sessions use global addresses.

3. General Observations

There are two themes that run though many of the design choices in this document. This section presents some general discussion on these two themes.

3.1. Use of Link-Local Addresses

The proper use of link-local addresses is a common theme in the IPv6 network design choices. Link-layer addresses are, of course, always present in an IPv6 network, but current network design practice mostly ignores them, despite efforts such as [RFC7404].

There are three main reasons for this current practice:

3.2. Separation of IPv4 and IPv6

Currently, most operators are running or planning to run networks that carry both IPv4 and IPv6 traffic. Hence the question: To what degree should IPv4 and IPv6 be kept separate? As can be seen above, this breaks into two sub-questions: To what degree should IPv4 and IPv6 traffic be kept separate, and to what degree should IPv4 and IPv6 routing information be kept separate?

The general consensus around the first question is that IPv4 and IPv6 traffic should generally be mixed together. This recommendation is driven by the operational simplicity of mixing the traffic, plus the general observation that the service being offered to the end user is Internet connectivity and most users do not know or care about the differences between IPv4 and IPv6. Thus it is very desirable to mix IPv4 and IPv6 on the same link to the end user. On other links, separation is possible but more operationally complex, though it does occasionally allow the operator to work around limitations on network devices. The situation here is roughly comparable to IP and MPLS traffic: many networks mix the two traffic types on the same links without issues.

By contrast, there is more of an argument for carrying IPv6 routing information over IPv6 transport, while leaving IPv4 routing information on IPv4 transport. By doing this, one gets fate-sharing between the control and data plane for each IP protocol version: if the data plane fails for some reason, then often the control plane will too.

4. IANA Considerations

This document makes no requests of IANA.

5. Security Considerations

This document introduces no new security considerations that are not already documented elsewhere.

The following is a brief list of pointers to documents related to the topics covered above that the reader may wish to review for security considerations.

For general IPv6 security, [RFC4942] provides guidance on security considerations around IPv6 transition and coexistence.

For OSPFv3, the base protocol specification [RFC5340] has a short security considerations section which notes that the fundamental mechanism for protecting OSPFv3 from attacks is the mechanism described in [RFC4552].

For IS-IS, [RFC5308] notes that ISIS for IPv6 raises no new security considerations over ISIS for IPv4 over those documented in [ISO10589] and [RFC5304].

For BGP, [RFC2545] notes that BGP for IPv6 raises no new security considerations over those present in BGP for IPv4. However, there has been much discussion of BGP security recently, and the interested reader is referred to the documents of the IETF's SIDR working group.

6. Acknowledgements

Many, many people in the V6OPS working group provided comments and suggestions that made their way into this document. A partial list includes: Rajiv Asati, Fred Baker, Michael Behringer, Marc Blanchet, Ron Bonica, Randy Bush, Cameron Byrne, Brian Carpenter, KK Chittimaneni, Tim Chown, Lorenzo Colitti, Gert Doering, Francis Dupont, Bill Fenner, Kedar K Gaonkar, Chris Grundemann, Steinar Haug, Ray Hunter, Joel Jaeggli, Victor Kuarsingh, Jen Linkova, Ivan Pepelnjak, Alexandru Petrescu, Rob Shakir, Mark Smith, Jean-Francois Tremblay, Dave Thaler, Tina Tsou, Eric Vyncke, Dan York, and Xuxiaohu.

The authors would also like to thank Pradeep Jain and Alastair Johnson for helpful comments on a very preliminary version of this document.

7. Informative References

[I-D.ietf-idr-bgp-multisession] Scudder, J., Appanna, C. and I. Varlashkin, "Multisession BGP", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-idr-bgp-multisession-07, September 2012.
[I-D.ietf-idr-dynamic-cap] Ramachandra, S. and E. Chen, "Dynamic Capability for BGP-4", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-idr-dynamic-cap-14, December 2011.
[I-D.ietf-v6ops-ula-usage-recommendations] Liu, B. and S. Jiang, "Considerations For Using Unique Local Addresses", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-v6ops-ula-usage-recommendations-05, May 2015.
[ISO10589] International Standards Organization, "Intermediate system to Intermediate system intra-domain routeing information exchange protocol for use in conjunction with the protocol for providing the connectionless-mode Network Service (ISO 8473)", International Standard 10589:2002, Nov 2002.
[RFC2080] Malkin, G. and R. Minnear, "RIPng for IPv6", RFC 2080, DOI 10.17487/RFC2080, January 1997.
[RFC2328] Moy, J., "OSPF Version 2", STD 54, RFC 2328, DOI 10.17487/RFC2328, April 1998.
[RFC2545] Marques, P. and F. Dupont, "Use of BGP-4 Multiprotocol Extensions for IPv6 Inter-Domain Routing", RFC 2545, DOI 10.17487/RFC2545, March 1999.
[RFC3107] Rekhter, Y. and E. Rosen, "Carrying Label Information in BGP-4", RFC 3107, DOI 10.17487/RFC3107, May 2001.
[RFC4193] Hinden, R. and B. Haberman, "Unique Local IPv6 Unicast Addresses", RFC 4193, DOI 10.17487/RFC4193, October 2005.
[RFC4291] Hinden, R. and S. Deering, "IP Version 6 Addressing Architecture", RFC 4291, DOI 10.17487/RFC4291, February 2006.
[RFC4364] Rosen, E. and Y. Rekhter, "BGP/MPLS IP Virtual Private Networks (VPNs)", RFC 4364, DOI 10.17487/RFC4364, February 2006.
[RFC4472] Durand, A., Ihren, J. and P. Savola, "Operational Considerations and Issues with IPv6 DNS", RFC 4472, DOI 10.17487/RFC4472, April 2006.
[RFC4552] Gupta, M. and N. Melam, "Authentication/Confidentiality for OSPFv3", RFC 4552, DOI 10.17487/RFC4552, June 2006.
[RFC4852] Bound, J., Pouffary, Y., Klynsma, S., Chown, T. and D. Green, "IPv6 Enterprise Network Analysis - IP Layer 3 Focus", RFC 4852, DOI 10.17487/RFC4852, April 2007.
[RFC4861] Narten, T., Nordmark, E., Simpson, W. and H. Soliman, "Neighbor Discovery for IP version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 4861, DOI 10.17487/RFC4861, September 2007.
[RFC4942] Davies, E., Krishnan, S. and P. Savola, "IPv6 Transition/Co-existence Security Considerations", RFC 4942, DOI 10.17487/RFC4942, September 2007.
[RFC5082] Gill, V., Heasley, J., Meyer, D., Savola, P. and C. Pignataro, "The Generalized TTL Security Mechanism (GTSM)", RFC 5082, DOI 10.17487/RFC5082, October 2007.
[RFC5120] Przygienda, T., Shen, N. and N. Sheth, "M-ISIS: Multi Topology (MT) Routing in Intermediate System to Intermediate Systems (IS-ISs)", RFC 5120, DOI 10.17487/RFC5120, February 2008.
[RFC5220] Matsumoto, A., Fujisaki, T., Hiromi, R. and K. Kanayama, "Problem Statement for Default Address Selection in Multi-Prefix Environments: Operational Issues of RFC 3484 Default Rules", RFC 5220, DOI 10.17487/RFC5220, July 2008.
[RFC5304] Li, T. and R. Atkinson, "IS-IS Cryptographic Authentication", RFC 5304, DOI 10.17487/RFC5304, October 2008.
[RFC5308] Hopps, C., "Routing IPv6 with IS-IS", RFC 5308, DOI 10.17487/RFC5308, October 2008.
[RFC5340] Coltun, R., Ferguson, D., Moy, J. and A. Lindem, "OSPF for IPv6", RFC 5340, DOI 10.17487/RFC5340, July 2008.
[RFC5375] Van de Velde, G., Popoviciu, C., Chown, T., Bonness, O. and C. Hahn, "IPv6 Unicast Address Assignment Considerations", RFC 5375, DOI 10.17487/RFC5375, December 2008.
[RFC5838] Lindem, A., Mirtorabi, S., Roy, A., Barnes, M. and R. Aggarwal, "Support of Address Families in OSPFv3", RFC 5838, DOI 10.17487/RFC5838, April 2010.
[RFC5887] Carpenter, B., Atkinson, R. and H. Flinck, "Renumbering Still Needs Work", RFC 5887, DOI 10.17487/RFC5887, May 2010.
[RFC5925] Touch, J., Mankin, A. and R. Bonica, "The TCP Authentication Option", RFC 5925, DOI 10.17487/RFC5925, June 2010.
[RFC5963] Gagliano, R., "IPv6 Deployment in Internet Exchange Points (IXPs)", RFC 5963, DOI 10.17487/RFC5963, August 2010.
[RFC6180] Arkko, J. and F. Baker, "Guidelines for Using IPv6 Transition Mechanisms during IPv6 Deployment", RFC 6180, DOI 10.17487/RFC6180, May 2011.
[RFC6296] Wasserman, M. and F. Baker, "IPv6-to-IPv6 Network Prefix Translation", RFC 6296, DOI 10.17487/RFC6296, June 2011.
[RFC6342] Koodli, R., "Mobile Networks Considerations for IPv6 Deployment", RFC 6342, DOI 10.17487/RFC6342, August 2011.
[RFC6752] Kirkham, A., "Issues with Private IP Addressing in the Internet", RFC 6752, DOI 10.17487/RFC6752, September 2012.
[RFC6782] Kuarsingh, V. and L. Howard, "Wireline Incremental IPv6", RFC 6782, DOI 10.17487/RFC6782, November 2012.
[RFC6879] Jiang, S., Liu, B. and B. Carpenter, "IPv6 Enterprise Network Renumbering Scenarios, Considerations, and Methods", RFC 6879, DOI 10.17487/RFC6879, February 2013.
[RFC6883] Carpenter, B. and S. Jiang, "IPv6 Guidance for Internet Content Providers and Application Service Providers", RFC 6883, DOI 10.17487/RFC6883, March 2013.
[RFC7010] Liu, B., Jiang, S., Carpenter, B., Venaas, S. and W. George, "IPv6 Site Renumbering Gap Analysis", RFC 7010, DOI 10.17487/RFC7010, September 2013.
[RFC7217] Gont, F., "A Method for Generating Semantically Opaque Interface Identifiers with IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC)", RFC 7217, DOI 10.17487/RFC7217, April 2014.
[RFC7381] Chittimaneni, K., Chown, T., Howard, L., Kuarsingh, V., Pouffary, Y. and E. Vyncke, "Enterprise IPv6 Deployment Guidelines", RFC 7381, DOI 10.17487/RFC7381, October 2014.
[RFC7404] Behringer, M. and E. Vyncke, "Using Only Link-Local Addressing inside an IPv6 Network", RFC 7404, DOI 10.17487/RFC7404, November 2014.
[RFC7868] Savage, D., Ng, J., Moore, S., Slice, D., Paluch, P. and R. White, "Cisco's Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP)", RFC 7868, DOI 10.17487/RFC7868, May 2016.
[v6-addressing-plan] SurfNet, "Preparing an IPv6 Address Plan", 2013.

Authors' Addresses

Philip Matthews Nokia 600 March Road Ottawa, Ontario K2K 2E6 Canada Phone: +1 613-784-3139 EMail: philip_matthews@magma.ca
Victor Kuarsingh Cisco 88 Queens Quay Toronto, ON M5J0B8 Canada EMail: victor@jvknet.com