Network Working Group C. Huitema
Internet-Draft Private Octopus Inc.
Intended status: Standards Track E. Rescorla
Expires: March 2, 2018 RTFM, Inc.
August 29, 2017

SNI Encryption in TLS Through Tunneling


This draft describes the general problem of encryption of the Server Name Identification (SNI) parameter. The proposed solutions hide a Hidden Service behind a Fronting Service, only disclosing the SNI of the Fronting Service to external observers. The draft starts by listing known attacks against SNI encryption, discusses the current "co-tenancy fronting" solution, and then presents two potential TLS layer solutions that might mitigate these attacks.
The first solution is based on TLS in TLS "quasi tunneling", and the second solution is based on "combined tickets". These solutions only require minimal extensions to the TLS protocol.

Status of This Memo

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This Internet-Draft will expire on March 2, 2018.

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction

Historically, adversaries have been able to monitor the use of web services through three channels: looking at DNS requests, looking at IP addresses in packet headers, and looking at the data stream between user and services. These channels are getting progressively closed. A growing fraction of Internet communication is encrypted, mostly using Transport Layer Security (TLS) [RFC5246]. Progressive deployment of solutions like DNS in TLS [RFC7858] mitigates the disclosure of DNS information. More and more services are colocated on multiplexed servers, loosening the relation between IP address and web service. However, multiplexed servers rely on the Service Name Information (SNI) to direct TLS connections to the appropriate service implementation. This protocol element is transmitted in clear text. As the other methods of monitoring get blocked, monitoring focuses on the clear text SNI. The purpose of SNI encryption is to prevent that.

In the past, there have been multiple attempts at defining SNI encryption. These attempts have generally floundered, because the simple designs fail to mitigate several of the attacks listed in Section 2. In the absence of a TLS level solution, the most popular approach to SNI privacy is HTTP level fronting, which we discuss in Section 3.

The current draft proposes two designs for SNI Encryption in TLS. Both designs hide a "Hidden Service" behind a "Fronting Service". To an external observer, the TLS connections will appear to be directed towards the Fronting Service. The cleartext SNI parameter will document the Fronting Service. A second SNI parameter will be transmitted in an encrypted form to the Fronting Service, and will allow that service to redirect the connection towards the Hidden Service.

The first design relies on tunneling TLS in TLS, as explained in Section 4. It does not require TLS extensions, but relies on conventions in the implementation of TLS 1.3 [I-D.ietf-tls-tls13] by the Client and the Fronting Server.

The second design, presented in Section 5 removes the requirement for tunneling, on simply relies on Combined Tickets. It uses the extension process for session tickets already defined in [I-D.ietf-tls-tls13].

This draft is presented as is to trigger discussions. It is expected that as the draft progresses, only one of the two proposed solutions will be retained.

1.1. Key Words

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

2. Security and Privacy Requirements for SNI Encryption

Over the past years, there have been multiple proposals to add an SNI encryption option in TLS. Many of these proposals appeared promising, but were rejected after security reviews pointed plausible attacks. In this section, we collect a list of these known attacks.

2.1. Mitigate Replay Attacks

The simplest SNI encryption designs replace in the initial TLS exchange the clear text SNI with an encrypted value, using a key known to the multiplexed server. Regardless of the encryption used, these designs can be broken by a simple replay attack, which works as follow:

1- The user starts a TLS connection to the multiplexed server, including an encrypted SNI value.

2- The adversary observes the exchange and copies the encrypted SNI parameter.

3- The adversary starts its own connection to the multiplexed server, including in its connection parameters the encrypted SNI copied from the observed exchange.

4- The multiplexed server establishes the connection to the protected service, thus revealing the identity of the service.

One of the goals of SNI encryption is to prevent adversaries from knowing which Hidden Service the client is using. Successful replay attacks breaks that goal by allowing adversaries to discover that service.

2.2. Avoid Widely Shared Secrets

It is easy to think of simple schemes in which the SNI is encrypted or hashed using a shared secret. This symmetric key must be known by the multiplexed server, and by every users of the protected services. Such schemes are thus very fragile, since the compromise of a single user would compromise the entire set of users and protected services.

2.3. Prevent SNI-based Denial of Service Attacks

Encrypting the SNI may create extra load for the multiplexed server. Adversaries may mount denial of service attacks by generating random encrypted SNI values and forcing the multiplexed server to spend resources in useless decryption attempts.

It may be argued that this is not an important DOS avenue, as regular TLS connection attempts also require the server to perform a number of cryptographic operations. However, in many cases, the SNI decryption will have to be performed by a front end component with limited resources, while the TLS operations are performed by the component dedicated to their respective services. SNI based DOS attacks could target the front end component.

2.4. Do not stick out

In some designs, handshakes using SNI encryption can be easily differentiated from "regular" handshakes. For example, some designs require specific extensions in the Client Hello packets, or specific values of the clear text SNI parameter. If adversaries can easily detect the use of SNI encryption, they could block it, or they could flag the users of SNI encryption for special treatment.

In the future, it might be possible to assume that a large fraction of TLS handshakes use SNI encryption. If that was the case, the detection of SNI encryption would be a lesser concern. However, we have to assume that in the near future, only a small fraction of TLS connections will use SNI encryption.

2.5. Forward Secrecy

The general concerns about forward secrecy apply to SNI encryption just as well as to regular TLS sessions. For example, some proposed designs rely on a public key of the multiplexed server to define the SNI encryption key. If the corresponding private key was compromised, the adversaries would be able to process archival records of past connections, and retrieve the protected SNI used in these connections. These designs failed to maintain forward secrecy of SNI encryption.

2.6. Proper Security Context

We can design solutions in which the multiplexed server or a fronting service act as a relay to reach the protected service. Some of those solutions involve just one TLS handshake between the client and the multiplexed server, or between the client and the fronting service. The master secret is verified by verifying a certificate provided by either of these entities, but not by the protected service.

These solutions expose the client to a Man-In-The-Middle attack by the multiplexed server or by the fronting service. Even if the client has some reasonable trust in these services, the possibility of MITM attack is troubling.

The multiplexed server or the fronting services could be pressured by adversaries. By design, they could be forced to deny access to the protected service, or to divulge which client accessed it. But if MITM is possible, the adversaries would also be able to pressure them into intercepting or spoofing the communications between client and protected service.

2.7. Fronting Server Spoofing

Adversaries could mount an attack by spoofing the Fronting Service. A spoofed Fronting Service could act as a "honeypot" for users of hidden services. At a minimum, the fake server could record the IP addresses of these users. If the SNI encryption solution places too much trust on the fronting server, the fake server could also serve fake content of its own choosing, including various forms of malware.

There are two main channels by which adversaries can conduct this attack. Adversaries can simply try to mislead users into believing that the honeypot is a valid Fronting Server, especially if that information is carried by word of mouth or in unprotected DNS records. Adversaries can also attempt to hijack the traffic to the regular Fronting Server, using for example spoofed DNS responses or spoofed IP level routing, combined with a spoofed certificate.

3. HTTP Co-Tenancy Fronting

In the absence of TLS level SNI encryption, many sites rely on an "HTTP Co-Tenancy" solution. The TLS connection is established with the fronting server, and HTTP requests are then sent over that connection to the hidden service. For example, the TLS SNI could be set to "", the fronting server, and HTTP requests sent over that connection could be directed to "", accessing the hidden service. This solution works well in practice when the fronting server and the hidden server are 'co-tenant" of the same multiplexed server.

The HTTP fronting solution can be deployed without modification to the TLS protocol, and does not require using and specific version of TLS. There are however a few issues regarding discovery, client implementations, trust, and applicability:

The discovery issue is common to pretty much every SNI encryption solution, and is also discussed in Section 4.2.3 and Section 5.3. The browser issue may be solved by developing a browser extension that support HTTP Fronting, and manages the list of fronting services associated with the hidden services that the client uses. The multi-protocol issue can be mitigated by using implementation of other applications over HTTP, such as for example DNS over HTTPS [I-D.hoffman-dns-over-https]. The trust issue, however, requires specific developments.

3.1. HTTPS Tunnels

The HTTP Fronting solution places a lot of trust in the Fronting Server. This required trust can be reduced by tunnelling HTTPS in HTTPS, which effectively treats the Fronting Server as an HTTP Proxy. In this solution, the client establishes a TLS connection to the Fronting Server, and then issues an HTTP Connect request to the Hidden Server. This will establish an end-to-end HTTPS over TLS connection between the client and the Hidden Server, mitigating the issues described in Section 2.6.

The HTTPS in HTTPS solution requires double encryption of every packet. It also requires that the fronting server decrypts and relay messages to the hidden server. Both of these requirements make the implementation onerous.

3.2. Delegation Token

Clients would see their privacy compromised if they contacted the wrong fronting server to access the hidden service, since this wrong server could disclose their access to adversaries. This can possibly be mitigated by recording the relation between fronting server and hidden server in a Delegation Token.

The delegation token would be a form of certificate, signed by the hidden service. It would have the following components:

If N multiple domains on a CDN are acceptable fronts, then we may want some way to indicate this without publishing and maintaining N separate tokens.

Delegation tokens could be published by the fronting server, in response for example to a specific query by a client. The client would then examine whether one of the Delegation Tokens matches the hidden service that it wants to access.

QUESTION: Do we need a revocation mechanism? What if a fronting service obtains a delegation token, and then becomes untrustable for some other reason? Or is it sufficient to just use short TTL?

4. SNI Encapsulation Specification

We propose to provide SNI Privacy by using a form of TLS encapsulation. The big advantage of this design compared to previous attempts is that it requires effectively no changes to TLS 1.3. It only requires a way to signal to the Fronting Server server that the encrypted application data is actually a ClientHello which is intended for the hidden service. Once the tunneled session is established, encrypted packets will be forwarded to the Hidden Service without requiring encryption or decryption by the Fronting Service.

4.1. Tunneling TLS in TLS

The proposed design is to encapsulate a second Client Hello in the early data of a TLS connection to the Fronting Service. To the outside, it just appears that the client is resuming a session with the fronting service.

  Client                  Fronting Service         Hidden Service


  + early_data

  + key_share*

  + psk_key_exchange_modes

  + pre_shared_key

  + SNI = fronting


   //Application data


    + KeyShare

    + signature_algorithms*

    + psk_key_exchange_modes*

    + pre_shared_key*

    + SNI = hidden




                         + KeyShare

                         + signature_algorithms*

                         + psk_key_exchange_modes*

                         + pre_shared_key*

                         + SNI = hidden  ---->

  <Application Data*>

  <end_of_early_data>    -------------------->  


                                                +  pre_shared_key

                                                     + key_share*









  {Finished}             ---------------------

  [Application Data]     <-------------------> [Application Data]

  Key to brackets:

  *  optional messages, not present in all scenarios

  () encrypted with Client->Fronting 0-RTT key

  <> encrypted with Client->Hidden 0-RTT key

  {} encrypted with Client->Hidden 1-RTT handshake

  [] encrypted with Client->Hidden 1-RTT key

The way this works is that the Fronting Server decrypts the data in the client's first flight, which is actually ClientHello#2 from the client, containing the true SNI and then passes it on to the Hidden server. However, the Hidden Server responds with its own ServerHello which the Fronting Server just passes unchanged, because it's actually the response to ClientHello#2 rather than to ClientHello#1. As long as ClientHello#1 and ClientHello#2 are similar (e.g., differing only in the client's actual share (though of course it must be in the same group)), SNI, and maybe EarlyDataIndication), then an attacker should not be able to distinguish these cases -- although there may be possible attacks through timing analysis, or by observing traffic between the Fronting Server and Hidden Server if they are not colocated.

4.2. Tunneling design issues

The big advantage of this design is that it requires effectively no changes to TLS. It only requires a way to signal to the Fronting Server that the encrypted application data is actually a ClientHello which is intended for the hidden service.

The major disadvantage of this overall design strategy (however it's signaled) is that it's somewhat harder to implement in the co-tenanted cases than the simple schemes that carry the "real SNI" in an encrypted parameter of the Client Hello. That means that it's somewhat less likely that servers will implement it "by default" and more likely that they will have to take explicit effort to allow Encrypted SNI. Conversely, however, these schemes (aside from a server with a single wildcard or multi-SAN cert) involve more changes to TLS to deal with issues like "what is the server cert that is digested into the keys", and that requires more analysis, so there is an advantage to deferring that. If we have EncryptedExtensions in the client's first flight it would be possible to define a "Real SNI" extension later if/when we had clearer analysis for that case.

Notes on several obvious technical issues:

  1. How does the Fronting Server distinguish this case from where the initial flight is actual application data? See Section 4.2.1 for some thoughts on this.
  2. Can we make this work with 0-RTT data from the client to the Hidden server? The answer is probably yes, as discussed in Section 4.2.2.
  3. What happens if the Fronting Server doesn't gateway, e.g., because it has forgotten the ServerConfiguration? In that case, the client gets a handshake with the Fronting Server, which it will have to determine via trial decryption. At this point the Fronting Server supplies a ServerConfiguration and the client can reconnect as above.
  4. What happens if the client does 0-RTT inside 0-RTT (as in #2 above) and the Hidden server doesn't recognize the ServerConfiguration in ClientHello#2? In this case, the client gets a 0-RTT rejection and it needs to do trial decryption to know whether the rejection was from the Fronting Server or the Hidden server.
  5. What happens if the Fronting Server is under a DOS attack, and chooses to refuse all 0-RTT data?

The client part of that logic, including the handling of question #3 above, is discussed in Section 4.2.3.

4.2.1. Fronting Server logic

The big advantage of this design is that it requires effectively no changes to TLS. It only requires a way to signal to the Fronting Server that the encrypted application data is actually a ClientHello which is intended for the hidden service. The two most obvious designs are:

EncryptedExtensions would be the most natural, but they were removed from the ClientHello during the TLS standardization. In Section 4.1 we assume that the second ClientHello is just transmitted as 0-RTT data, and that the servers use some form of pattern matching to differentiate between this second ClientHello and other application messages.

4.2.2. Early data

In the proposed design, the second ClientHello is sent to the Fronting Server as early data, encrypted with Client->Fronting 0-RTT key. If the Client follows the second ClientHello with 0-RTT data, that data could in theory be sent in two ways:

  1. The client could use double encryption. The data is first encrypted with the Client->Hidden 0-RTT key, then wrapped and encrypted with the Client->Fronting 0-RTT key. The Fronting server would decrypt, unwrap and relay.
  2. The client could just encrypt the data with the Client->Hidden 0-RTT key, and ask the server to blindly relay it.

Each of these ways has its issues. The double encryption scenario would require two end of early data messages, one double encrypted and relayed by the Fronting Server to the Hidden Server, and another sent from Client to Fronting Server, to delimit the end of the double encrypted stream, and also to ensure that the stream of messages is not distinguishable from simply sending 0-RTT data to the Fronting server. The blind relaying is simpler, and is the scenario described in the diagram of Section 4.1. In that scenario, the Fronting server switches to relaying mode immediately after unwrapping and forwarding the second ClientHello. However, the blind relaying requires the ClientHello to be isolated to a single record.

4.2.3. Client requirements

In order to use the tunneling service, the client needs to identify the Fronting Service willing to tunnel to the Hidden Service. We can assume that the client will learn the identity of suitable Fronting Services from the Hidden Service itself.

In order to tunnel the second ClientHello as 0-RTT data, the client needs to have a shared secret with the Fronting Service. To avoid the trap of "well known shared secrets" described in Section 2.2, this should be a pair wise secret. The most practical solution is to use a session resumption ticket. This requires that prior to the tunneling attempt, the client establishes regular connections with the fronting service and obtains one or several session resumption tickets.

5. SNI encryption with combined tickets

EDITOR'S NOTE: This section is an alternative design to Section 4. As the draft progresses, only one of the alternatives will be selected, and the text corresponding to the other alternative will be deleted.

We propose to provide SNI Privacy by relying solely on "combined tickets". The big advantage of this design compared to previous attempts is that it requires only minimal changes to implementations of TLS 1.3. These changes are confined to the handling of the combined ticket by Fronting and Hidden service, and to the signaling of the Fronting SNI to the client by the Hidden service.

5.1. Session resumption with combined tickets

In this example, the client obtains a combined session resumption ticket during a previous connection to the hidden service, and has learned the SNI of the fronting service. The session resumption will happen as follows:

  Client                    Fronting Service         Hidden Service


  + early_data

  + key_share*

  + psk_key_exchange_modes

  + pre_shared_key

  + SNI = fronting


                         // Decode the ticket

                         // Forwards to hidden

                         ClientHello  ------->

  (Application Data*)  ---------------------->


                                                +  pre_shared_key

                                                     + key_share*


                                                    + early_data*


                       <---------------------- [Application Data]


  {Finished}           ---------------------->

  [Application Data]   <---------------------> [Application Data]

  +  Indicates noteworthy extensions sent in the

     previously noted message.

  *  Indicates optional or situation-dependent

     messages/extensions that are not always sent.

  () encrypted with Client->Hidden 0-RTT key

  {} encrypted with Client->Hidden 1-RTT handshake

  [] encrypted with Client->Hidden 1-RTT key

The Fronting server that receives the Client Hello will find the combined ticket in the pre_shared_key extensions, just as it would in a regular session resumption attempt. When parsing the ticket, the Fronting server will discover that the session really is meant to be resumed with the Hidden server. It will arrange for all the connection data to be forwarded to the Hidden server, including forwarding a copy of the initial Client Hello.

The Hidden server will receive the Client Hello. It will obtain the identity of the Fronting service from the SNI parameter. It will then parse the session resumption ticket, and proceed with the resumption of the session.

In this design, the Client Hello message is relayed unchanged from Fronting server to hidden server. This ensures that code changes are confined to the interpretation of the message parameters. The construction of handshake contexts is left unchanged.

5.2. New Combined Session Ticket

In normal TLS 1.3 operations, the server can send New Session Ticket messages at any time after the receiving the Client Finished message. The ticket structure is defined in TLS 1.3 as:

   struct {

       uint32 ticket_lifetime;

       uint32 ticket_age_add;

       opaque ticket_nonce<1..255>;

       opaque ticket<1..2^16-1>;

       Extension extensions<0..2^16-2>;

   } NewSessionTicket;

When SNI encryption is enabled, tickets will carry a "Fronting SNI" extension, and the ticket value itself will be negotiated between Fronting Service and Hidden Service, as in:

Client                    Fronting Service         Hidden Service

                                      <=======   <Ticket Request>

                      Combined Ticket =======>

                                              [New Session Ticket

                     <------------------------    + SNI Extension]

  <==> sent on connection between Hidden and Fronting service   

  <>   encrypted with Fronting<->Hidden key

  [] encrypted with Client->Hidden 1-RTT key

In theory, the actual format of the ticket could be set by mutual agreement between Fronting Service and Hidden Service. In practice, it is probably better to provide guidance, as the ticket must meet three requirements:

There are three plausible designs, a stateful design, a shared key design, and a

In the stateful design, the ticket are just random numbers that the Fronting server associates with the Hidden server, and the Hidden server associates with the session context. The shared key design would work as follow:

The hidden server can just refresh the ticket any time it pleases, as usual.

This design allows the Hidden Service to hide behind many Fronting Services, each using a different key. The Client Hello received by the Hidden Server carries the SNI of the Fronting Service, which the Hidden Server can use to select the appropriate K_sni.

In the public key design, the Hidden Server encrypts the tickets with a public key of the Fronting Server. The ticket itself would be similar to what is used in the shared key design. The compute cost for a single decryption may be higher, but the Fronting Server would not need to blindly try multiple decryption keys associated with multiple Hidden Servers. The Hidden Server would not be able to decrypt the ession Tickets, which means that it would have to rely on some kind of stateful storage.

5.3. First session

The previous sections present how sessions can be resumed with the combined ticket. Clients have that have never contacted the Hidden Server will need to obtain a first ticket during a first session. The most plausible option is to have the client directly connect to the Hidden Service, and then ask for a combined ticket. The obvious issue is that the SNI will not be encrypted for this first connection, which exposes the client to surveillance and censorship.

The client may also learn about the relation between Fronting Service and Hidden Service through an out of band channel, such as DNS service, or word of mouth. However, it is difficult to establish a combined ticket completely out of band, since the ticket must be associated to two shared secrets, one understood by the Fronting service and the other shared with the Hidden service to ensure protection against replay attacks.

An alternative may be to use the TLS-in-TLS service described in Section 4.1 for the first contact. There will be some overhead due to tunnelling, but as we discussed in Section 4.2.3 the tunneling solution allows for safe first contact. Yet another way would be to use the HTTPS in HTTPS tunneling described in Section 3.1.

6. Security Considerations

The encapsulation protocol proposed in this draft mitigates the known attacks listed in Section 2. For example, the encapsulation design uses pairwise security contexts, and is not dependent on the widely shared secrets described in Section 2.2. The design also does not rely on additional public key operations by the multiplexed server or by the fronting server, and thus does not open the attack surface for denial of service discussed in Section 2.3. The session keys are negotiated end to end between the client and the protected service, as required in Section 2.6.

The combined ticket solution also mitigates the known attacks. The design also uses pairwise security contexts, and is not dependent on the widely shared secrets described in Section 2.2. The design also does not rely on additional public key operations by the multiplexed server or by the fronting server, and thus does not open the attack surface for denial of service discussed in Section 2.3. The session keys are negotiated end to end between the client and the protected service, as required in Section 2.6.

However, in some cases, proper mitigation depends on careful implementation.

6.1. Replay attacks and side channels

Both solutions mitigate the replay attacks described in Section 2.1 because adversaries cannot decrypt the replies intended for the client. However, the connection from the fronting service to the hidden service can be observed through side channels.

To give an obvious example, suppose that the fronting service merely relays the data by establishing a TCP connection to the hidden service. An adversary capable of observing all network traffic at the fronting server can associate the arrival of an encrypted message to the fronting service and the TCP handshake between the fronting server and the hidden service, and deduce which hidden service the user accessed.

The mitigation of this attack relies on proper implementation of the fronting service. This may require cooperation from the multiplexed server.

6.2. Sticking out

The TLS encapsulation protocol mostly fulfills the requirements to "not stick out" expressed in Section 2.4. The initial messages will be sent as 0-RTT data, and will be encrypted using the 0-RTT key negotiated with the fronting service. Adversaries cannot tell whether the client is using TLS encapsulation or some other 0-RTT service. However, this is only true if the fronting service regularly uses 0-RTT data.

The combined token solution almost perfectly fulfills the requirements to "not stick out" expressed in Section 2.4, as the observable flow of message is almost exactly the same as a regular TLS connection. However, adversaries could observe the values of the PSK Identifier that contains the combined ticket. The proposed ticket structure is designed to thwart analysis of the ticket, but if implementations are not careful the size of the combined ticket can be used as a side channel allowing adversaries to distinguish between different Hidden Services located behind the same Fronting Service.

6.3. Forward Secrecy

In the TLS encapsulation protocol, the encapsulated Client Hello is encrypted using the session resumption key. If this key is revealed, the Client Hello data will also be revealed. The mitigation there is to not use the same session resumption key multiple time.

The most common implementations of TLS tickets have the server using Session Ticket Encryption Keys (STEKs) to create an encrypted copy of the session parameters which is then stored by the client. When the client resumes, it supplies this encrypted copy, the server decrypts it, and has the parameters it needs to resume. The server need only remember the STEK. If a STEK is disclosed to an adversary, then all of the data encrypted by sessions protected by the STEK may be decrypted by an adversary.

To mitigate this attack, server implementations of the combined ticket protocol SHOULD use stateful tickets instead of STEK protected TLS tickets. If they do rely on STEK protected tickets, they MUST ensure that the K_sni keys used to encrypt these tickets are rotated frequently.

7. IANA Considerations

Do we need to register an extension point? Or is it just OK to use early data?

8. Acknowledgements

A large part of this draft originates in discussion of SNI encryption on the TLS WG mailing list, including comments after the tunneling approach was first proposed in a message to that list: <>.

During the discussion of SNI Encryption in Yokohama, Deb Cooley argued that rather than messing with TLS to allow SNI encryption, we should just tunnel TLS in TLS. A number of people objected to this on the grounds of the performance cost for the Fronting Server because it has to encrypt and decrypt everything.

After the meeting, Martin Thomson suggested a modification to the tunnelling proposal that removes this cost. The key observation is that if we think of the 0-RTT flight as a separate message attached to the handshake, then we can tunnel a second first flight in it.

The combined ticket approach was first proposed by Cedric Fournet and Antoine Delignaut-Lavaud.

The delegation token design comes from many people, including Ben Schwartz, Brian Sniffen and Rich Salz.

Thanks to Daniel Kahn Gillmor for a pretty detailed review of the initial draft.

9. References

9.1. Normative References

[I-D.ietf-tls-tls13] Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.3", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-tls-tls13-21, July 2017.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997.

9.2. Informative References

[I-D.hoffman-dns-over-https] Hoffman, P. and P. McManus, "DNS Queries over HTTPS", Internet-Draft draft-hoffman-dns-over-https-01, June 2017.
[RFC2595] Newman, C., "Using TLS with IMAP, POP3 and ACAP", RFC 2595, DOI 10.17487/RFC2595, June 1999.
[RFC5246] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, DOI 10.17487/RFC5246, August 2008.
[RFC7858] Hu, Z., Zhu, L., Heidemann, J., Mankin, A., Wessels, D. and P. Hoffman, "Specification for DNS over Transport Layer Security (TLS)", RFC 7858, DOI 10.17487/RFC7858, May 2016.

Authors' Addresses

Christian Huitema Private Octopus Inc. Friday Harbor, WA 98250 U.S.A EMail:
Eric Rescorla RTFM, Inc. U.S.A EMail: