SACM Working Group A. Montville
Internet-Draft B. Munyan
Intended status: Standards Track CIS
Expires: August 26, 2019 February 22, 2019

Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) Architecture


This memo defines a Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) architecture. This work is built upon [I-D.ietf-mile-xmpp-grid], and is predicated upon information gleaned from SACM Use Cases and Requirements ([RFC7632] and [RFC8248] respectively), and terminology as found in [I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology].

WORKING GROUP: The source for this draft is maintained in GitHub. Suggested changes should be submitted as pull requests at Instructions are on that page as well.

Status of This Memo

This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

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This Internet-Draft will expire on August 26, 2019.

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction

The purpose of this draft is to define an architectural solution for a SACM Domain. This draft also defines an implementation of the architecutre, built upon [I-D.ietf-mile-xmpp-grid] and [I-D.ietf-sacm-ecp]. These approaches complement each other to more completely meet the spirit of [RFC7632] and requirements found in [RFC8248].

This solution gains the most advantage by supporting a variety of collection mechanisms. In this sense, the solution ideally intends to enable a cooperative ecosystem of tools from disparate sources with minimal operator configuration. The solution described in this document seeks to accommodate these recognitions by first defining a generic abstract architecture, then making that solution somewhat more concrete.

Keep in mind that, at this point, the draft is tracking ongoing work being performed primarily around and during IETF hackathons. The list of hackathon efforts follows:

1.1. Open Questions

[NOTE: This section will eventually be removed.]

The following is a list of open questions we still have about the path forward with this exploration:

1.2. Requirements notation

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119, BCP 14 [RFC2119].

2. Terms and Definitions

This draft defers to [I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology] for terms and definitions.

3. Architectural Overview

The generic approach proposed herein recognizes the need to obtain information from existing state collection mechanisms, and makes every attempt to respect [RFC7632] and [RFC8248]. At the foundation of any architecture are entities, or components, that need to communicate. They communicate by sharing information, where, in a given flow one or more components are consumers of information and one or more components are providers of information.

                  | Feeds/Repositories |
                  |  of External Data  |
*****************************v**************** Enterprise Boundary ************
*                            |                                                *
*  +--------------+          |     +--------------+                           *
*  | Orchestrator |          |     | Repositories |                           *
*  +------^-------+          |     +----^---------+                           *
*         |                  |          |              +----------------+     *
*      A  |                B |        C |              | Downstream Uses|     *
*         |                  |          |              | +-----------+  |     *
*  +------v------------------v----------v------+       | |Evaluations|  |     *
*  |           Message Transfer System         <-------> +-----------+  |     *
*  +----------------------^--------------------+     D | +-----------+  |     *
*                       E |                            | | Analytics |  |     *
*                         |                            | +-----------+  |     *
*           +-------------v---------+                  | +-----------+  |     *
*           | Collection Subsystems |                  | | Reporting |  |     *
*           +-----------------------+                  | +-----------+  |     *
*                                                      +----------------+     *

Figure 1: Notional Architecture

As shown in Figure 1, the notional SACM architecture consists of some basic SACM Components using a message transfer system to communicate. While not depicted, the message transfer system is expected to maximally align with the requirements described in [RFC8248], which means that the message transfer system will support brokered (i.e. point-to-point) and proxied data exchange.

Additionally, component-specific interfaces (i.e. such as A, B, C, D, and E in Figure 1) are expected to be specified logically then bound to one or more specific implementations. This SHOULD be done for each capability related to the given SACM Component.

3.1. SACM Roles

This document suggests a variety of players in a cooperative ecosystem - we call these players SACM Components. SACM Components may be composed of other SACM Components, and each SACM Component plays one, or more, of several roles relevant to the ecosystem. Generally each role is either a consumer of information or a provider of information. The "Components, Capabilities, Interfaces, and Workflows" section provides more details about SACM Components that play these types of roles.

3.2. Exploring An XMPP-based Solution

Figure 2 depicts a slightly more detailed view of the architecture (within the enterprise boundary) - one that fosters the development of a pluggable ecosystem of cooperative tools. Existing collection mechanisms can be brought into this architecture by specifying the interface of the collector and creating the XMPP-Grid Connector binding for that interface.

Additionally, while not directly depicted in Figure 2, this architecture does allow point-to-point interfaces. In fact, [I-D.ietf-mile-xmpp-grid] provides brokering capabilities to facilitate such point-to-point data transfers). Additionally, each of the SACM Components depicted in Figure 2 may be a provider, a consumer, or both, depending on the workflow in context.

 +--------------+           +--------------+
 | Orchestrator |           | Repositories |
 +------^-------+           +------^-------+       
        |                          |
        |                          |
+-------v--------------------------v--------+     +-----------------+
|                XMPP-Grid+                 <-----> Downstream Uses |
+------------------------^------------------+     +-----------------+
                 |  XMPP-Grid   |   
                 | Connector(s) |
                 | Collector(s) |

Figure 2: XMPP-based Architecture

[I-D.ietf-mile-xmpp-grid] details a number of XMPP extensions (XEPs) that MUST be utilized to meet the needs of [RFC7632] and [RFC8248]:

At this point, [I-D.ietf-mile-xmpp-grid] specifies fewer features than SACM requires, and there are other XMPP extensions (XEPs) we need to consider to meet the needs of [RFC7632] and [RFC8248]. In Figure 2 we therefore use "XMPP-Grid+" to indicate something more than [I-D.ietf-mile-xmpp-grid] alone, even though we are not yet fully confident in the exact set of XMPP-related extensions we will require. The authors propose work to extend (or modify) [I-D.ietf-mile-xmpp-grid] to include additional XEPs - possibly the following:

3.3. Example Architecture using XMPP-Grid and Endpoint Posture Collection Protocol

Figure 3 depicts a further detailed view of the architecture including the Endpoint Posture Collection Protocol as the collection subsystem, illustrating the idea of a pluggable ecosystem of cooperative tools.

          | Feeds/Repositories |
          |  of External Data  |
********************v************************* Enterprise Boundary ************
*                   |                                                         *
*  +--------------+ | +-------------------+ +-------------+                   *
*  | Orchestrator | | | Posture Attr Repo | | Policy Repo |                   *
*  +------^-------+ | +---------^---------+ +---^---------+                   *
*         |         |           |               |          +----------------+ *
*         |         |           |               |          | Downstream Uses| *
*         |         |           |               |          | +-----------+  | *
*  +------v---------v-----------v---------------v--+       | |Evaluations|  | *
*  |                    XMPP-Grid                  <-------> +-----------+  | *
*  +----------------^-------------------^----------+       | +-----------+  | *
*                   |                   |                  | | Analytics |  | *
*                   |                   |                  | +-----------+  | *
*                   |             +-----v--------+         | +-----------+  | *
*                   |             | Results Repo |         | | Reporting |  | *
*                   |             +--------------+         | +-----------+  | *
*                   |                                      +----------------+ *
*         +---------v-----------+                                             *
*         | XMPP-Grid Connector |                                             *
*         +---------^-----------+                                             *
*                   |                                                         *
* +-----------------v-------------------------------------------------------+ *
* |                                                                         | *
* | +--Posture Collection Manager------------------------------------------+| *
* | |+-----------------------+ +----------------+ +----------------------+ || *
* | || Communications Server | | Posture Server | | Posture Validator(s) | || *
* | |+----------^------------+ +----------------+ +----------------------+ || *
* | +-----------|----------------------------------------------------------+| *
* |             |                                                           | *
* | +-----------|-------------------------Endpoint or Endpoint Proxy-------+| *
* | |+----------v------------+ +----------------+ +----------------------+ || *
* | || Communications Client | | Posture Client | | Posture Collector(s) | || *
* | |+-----------------------+ +----------------+ +----------------------+ || *
* | +----------------------------------------------------------------------+| *
* +-----------------Endpoint Posture Collection Profile---------------------+ *
*                                                                             *

Figure 3: XMPP-based Architecture including EPCP

4. Components, Capabilities, Interfaces, and Workflows

The SACM Architecture consists of a variety of SACM Components, and named components are intended to embody one or more specific capabilities. Interacting with these capabilities will require at least two levels of interface specification. The first is a logical interface specification, and the second is at least one binding to a specific transfer mechanism. An example transfer mechanism is XMPP-Grid+.

The following subsections describe some of the components, capabilities, and interfaces we may expect to see participating in a SACM Domain.

4.1. Components

The following is a list of suggested SACM Component classes and specializations.

4.2. Capabilities

Repositories will have a need for fairly standard CRUD operations and query by attribute operations. Collector interfaces may enable ad hoc assessment (on-demand processing), state item watch actions (i.e. watch a particular item for particular change), persisting other behaviors (i.e. setting some mandatory reporting period). Evaluators may have their own set of interfaces, and an Assessor would represent both Collector and Evaluation interfaces, and may have additional concerns added to an Assessor Interface.

Not to be overlooked, whatever solution at which we arrive, per [RFC8248], MUST support capability negotiation. While not explicitly treated here, each interface will understand specific serializations, and other component needs to express those serializations to other components.

A capability language is fully explored in mandl-sacm-tool-capability-language (to be submitted).

4.3. Interfaces

Interfaces should be derived directly from identified workflows, several of which are described in this document.

4.4. Workflows

The workflows described in this document should be considered as candidate workflows - informational for the purpose of discovering the necessary components and specifying their interfaces.

4.4.1. IT Asset Management

Information Technology asset management is easier said than done. The [CISCONTROLS] have two controls dealing with IT asset management. Control 1, Inventory and Control of Hardware Assets, states, "Actively manage (inventory, track, and correct) all hardware devices on the network so that only authorized devices are given access, and unauthorized and unmanaged devices are found and prevented from gaining access." Control 2, Inventory and Control of Software Assets, states, "Actively manage (inventory, track, and correct) all software on the network so that only authorized software is installed and can execute, and that unauthorized and unmanaged software is found and prevented from installation or execution."

In spirit, this covers all of the processing entities on your network (as opposed to things like network cables, dongles, adapters, etc.), whether physical or virtual.

An IT asset management capability needs to be able to:

4.4.2. Vulnerability Management

Vulnerability management is a relatively established process. According to the [CISCONTROLS], continuous vulnerability management the act of continuously acquiring, assessing, and taking subsequent action on new information in order to identify and remediate vulnerabilities, therefore minimizing the window of opportunity for attackers. Vulnerability Assessment Workflow Assumptions

A number of assumptions must be stated to clarify the scope of a vulnerability assessment workflow: Vulnerability Assessment Workflow

When new vulnerability description information is received by the enterprise, affected endpoints are identified and assessed. The vulnerability is said to apply to an endpoint if the endpoint satisfies the conditions expressed in the vulnerability detection data.

A vulnerability assessment (i.e. vulnerability detection) is performed in two steps:

Vulnerability detection relies on the examination of different endpoint information depending on the nature of a specific vulnerability. Common endpoint information used to detect a vulnerability includes:

In many cases, the endpoint information needed to determine an endpoint's vulnerability status will have been previously collected by the endpoint management capabilities and available in a Repository. However, in other cases, the necessary endpoint information will not be readily available in a Repository and a Collection Task will be triggered to collect it from the target endpoint. Of course, some implementations of endpoint management capabilities may prefer to enable operators to perform this collection under certain circumstances, even when sufficient information can be provided by the endpoint management capabilities (e.g. there may be freshness requirements for information).

The collection of additional endpoint information for the purpose of vulnerability assessment does not necessarily need to be a pull by the vulnerability assessment capabilities. Over time, some new pieces of information that are needed during common types of assessments might be identified. Endpoint management capabilities can be reconfigured to have this information delivered automatically. This avoids the need to trigger additional Collection Tasks to gather this information during assessments, streamlining the assessment process. Likewise, it might be observed that certain information delivered by endpoint management capabilities is rarely used. In this case, it might be useful to re-configure the endpoint management capabilities to no longer collect this information to reduce network and processing overhead. Instead, a new Collection Task can be triggered to gather this data on the rare occasions when it is needed.

4.4.3. Configuration Management

Configuration management involves configuration assessment, which requires state assessment (TODO: Tie to SACM use cases). The [CISCONTROLS] specify two high-level controls concerning configuration management (Control 5 for non-network devices and Control 11 for network devices). As an aside, these controls are listed separately because many enterprises have different organizations for managing network infrastructure and workload endpoints. Merging the two controls results in a requirement to: "Establish, implement, and actively manage (track, report on, correct) the security configuration of (endpoints) using a rigorous configuration management and change control process in order to prevent attackers from exploiting vulnerable services and settings."

Typically, an enterprise will use configuration guidance from a reputable source, and from time to time they may tailor the guidance from that source prior to adopting it as part of their enterprise standard. The enterprise standard is then provided to the appropriate configuration assessment tools and they assess endpoints and/or appropriate endpoint information. A preferred flow follows:

The SACM architecture needs to support varying deployment models to accommodate the current state of the industry, but should strongly encourage event-driven approaches to monitoring configuration.

5. Privacy Considerations


6. Security Considerations


7. IANA Considerations

IANA tables can probably be used to make life a little easier. We would like a place to enumerate:

8. References

8.1. Normative References

[I-D.ietf-mile-xmpp-grid] Cam-Winget, N., Appala, S., Pope, S. and P. Saint-Andre, "Using XMPP for Security Information Exchange", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-mile-xmpp-grid-09, December 2018.
[I-D.ietf-sacm-ecp] Haynes, D., Fitzgerald-McKay, J. and L. Lorenzin, "Endpoint Posture Collection Profile", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-sacm-ecp-04, February 2019.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997.
[RFC8412] Schmidt, C., Haynes, D., Coffin, C., Waltermire, D. and J. Fitzgerald-McKay, "Software Inventory Message and Attributes (SWIMA) for PA-TNC", RFC 8412, DOI 10.17487/RFC8412, July 2018.

8.2. Informative References

[CISCONTROLS] "CIS Controls v7.0", n.d..
[draft-birkholz-sacm-yang-content] Birkholz, H. and N. Cam-Winget, "YANG subscribed notifications via SACM Statements", n.d..
[HACK100] "IETF 100 Hackathon - Vulnerability Scenario EPCP+XMPP", n.d..
[HACK101] "IETF 101 Hackathon - Configuration Assessment XMPP", n.d..
[HACK102] "IETF 102 Hackathon - YANG Collection on Traditional Endpoints", n.d..
[HACK99] "IETF 99 Hackathon - Vulnerability Scenario EPCP", n.d..
[I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology] Birkholz, H., Lu, J., Strassner, J., Cam-Winget, N. and A. Montville, "Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) Terminology", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-sacm-terminology-16, December 2018.
[NIST800126] Waltermire, D., Quinn, S., Booth, H., Scarfone, K. and D. Prisaca, "SP 800-126 Rev. 3 - The Technical Specification for the Security Content Automation Protocol (SCAP) - SCAP Version 1.3", February 2018.
[NISTIR7694] Halbardier, A., Waltermire, D. and M. Johnson, "NISTIR 7694 Specification for Asset Reporting Format 1.1", n.d..
[RFC5023] Gregorio, J. and B. de hOra, "The Atom Publishing Protocol", RFC 5023, DOI 10.17487/RFC5023, October 2007.
[RFC7632] Waltermire, D. and D. Harrington, "Endpoint Security Posture Assessment: Enterprise Use Cases", RFC 7632, DOI 10.17487/RFC7632, September 2015.
[RFC8248] Cam-Winget, N. and L. Lorenzin, "Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) Requirements", RFC 8248, DOI 10.17487/RFC8248, September 2017.
[RFC8322] Field, J., Banghart, S. and D. Waltermire, "Resource-Oriented Lightweight Information Exchange (ROLIE)", RFC 8322, DOI 10.17487/RFC8322, February 2018.
[XMPPEXT] "XMPP Extensions", n.d..

Appendix A. Mapping to RFC8248

This section provides a mapping of XMPP and XMPP Extensions to the relevant requirements from [RFC8248]. In the table below, the ID and Name columns provide the ID and Name of the requirement directly out of [RFC8248]. The Supported By column may contain one of several values:

If there is no entry in the Supported By column, then there is a gap that must be filled.

ID Name Supported By
G-001 Solution Extensibility XMPP-Core
G-002 Interoperability XMPP
G-003 Scalability XMPP
G-004 Versatility XMPP-Core
G-005 Information Extensibility XMPP-Core
G-006 Data Protection Operational
G-007 Data Partitioning Operational
G-008 Versioning and Backward Compatibility XEP-0115/0030
G-009 Information Discovery XEP-0030
G-010 Target Endpoint Discovery XMPP-Core
G-011 Push and Pull Access XEP-0060/0312
G-012 SACM Component Interface N/A
G-013 Endpoint Location and Network Topology
G-014 Target Endpoint Identity XMPP-Core
G-015 Data Access Control
ARCH-001 Component Functions XMPP
ARCH-002 Scalability XMPP-Core
ARCH-003 Flexibility XMPP-Core
ARCH-004 Separation of Data and Management Functions
ARCH-005 Topology Flexibility XMPP-Core
ARCH-006 Capability Negotiation XEP-0115/0030
ARCH-007 Role-Based Authorization XMPP-Core
ARCH-008 Context-Based Authorization
ARCH-009 Time Synchronization Operational
IM-001 Extensible Attribute Vocabulary N/A
IM-002 Posture Data Publication N/A
IM-003 Data Model Negotiation N/A
IM-004 Data Model Identification N/A
IM-005 Data Lifetime Management N/A
IM-006 Singularity and Modularity N/A
DM-001 Element Association N/A
DM-002 Data Model Structure N/A
DM-003 Search Flexibility N/A
DM-004 Full vs. Partial Updates N/A
DM-005 Loose Coupling N/A
DM-006 Data Cardinality N/A
DM-007 Data Model Negotiation N/A
DM-008 Data Origin N/A
DM-009 Origination Time N/A
DM-010 Data Generation N/A
DM-011 Data Source N/A
DM-012 Data Updates N/A
DM-013 Multiple Collectors N/A
DM-014 Attribute Extensibility N/A
DM-015 Solicited vs. Unsolicited Updates N/A
DM-016 Transfer Agnostic N/A
OP-001 Time Synchronization
OP-002 Collection Abstraction
OP-003 Collection Composition
OP-004 Attribute-Based Query
OP-005 Information-Based Query with Filtering
OP-006 Operation Scalability
OP-007 Data Abstraction
OP-008 Provider Restriction
T-001 Multiple Transfer Protocol Support Architecture
T-002 Data Integrity Operational
T-003 Data Confidentiality Operational
T-004 Transfer Protection
T-005 Transfer Reliability
T-006 Transfer-Layer Requirements
T-007 Transfer Protocol Adoption Architecture

Appendix B. Example Components

B.1. Policy Services

Consider a policy server conforming to [RFC8322]. [RFC8322] describes a RESTful way based on the ATOM Publishing Protocol ([RFC5023]) to find specific data collections. While this represents a specific binding (i.e. RESTful API based on [RFC5023]), there is a more abstract way to look at ROLIE.

ROLIE provides notional workspaces and collections, and provides the concept of information categories and links. Strictly speaking, these are logical concepts independent of the RESTful binding ROLIE specifies. In other words, ROLIE binds a logical interface (i.e. GET workspace, GET collection, SET entry, and so on) to a specific mechanism (namely an ATOM Publication Protocol extension).

It is not inconceivable to believe there could be a different interface mechanism, or a connector, providing these same operations using XMPP-Grid as the transfer mechanism.

Even if a [RFC8322] server were external to an organization, there would be a need for a policy source inside the organization as well, and it may be preferred for such a policy source to be connected directly to the ecosystem's communication infrastructure.

B.2. Software Inventory

The SACM working group has accepted work on the Endpoint Posture Collection Profile [I-D.ietf-sacm-ecp], which describes a collection architecture and may be viewed as a collector coupled with a collection-specific repository.

                                 Posture Manager              Endpoint
                Orchestrator    +---------------+        +---------------+
                +--------+      |               |        |               |
                |        |      | +-----------+ |        | +-----------+ |
                |        |<---->| | Posture   | |        | | Posture   | |
                |        | pub/ | | Validator | |        | | Collector | |
                |        | sub  | +-----------+ |        | +-----------+ |
                +--------+      |      |        |        |      |        |
                                |      |        |        |      |        |
Evaluator       Repository      |      |        |        |      |        |
+------+        +--------+      | +-----------+ |<-------| +-----------+ |
|      |        |        |      | | Posture   | | report | | Posture   | |
|      |        |        |      | | Collection| |        | | Collection| |
|      |<-----> |        |<-----| | Manager   | | query  | | Engine    | |
|      |request/|        | store| +-----------+ |------->| +-----------+ |
|      |respond |        |      |               |        |               |
|      |        |        |      |               |        |               |
+------+        +--------+      +---------------+        +---------------+

Figure 4: EPCP Collection Architecture

In Figure 4, any of the communications between the Posture Manager and EPCP components to its left could be performed directly or indirectly using a given message transfer mechanism. For example, the pub/sub interface between the Orchestrator and the Posture Manager could be using a proprietary method or using [I-D.ietf-mile-xmpp-grid] or some other pub/sub mechanism. Similarly, the store connection from the Posture Manager to the Repository could be performed internally to a given implementation, via a RESTful API invocation over HTTPS, or even over a pub/sub mechanism.

Our assertion is that the Evaluator, Repository, Orchestrator, and Posture Manager all have the potential to represent SACM Components with specific capability interfaces that can be logically specified, then bound to one or more specific transfer mechanisms (i.e. RESTful API, [RFC8322], [I-D.ietf-mile-xmpp-grid], and so on).

B.3. Datastream Collection

[NIST800126], also known as SCAP 1.3, provides the technical specifications for a "datastream collection". The specification describes the "datastream collection" as being "composed of SCAP data streams and SCAP source components". A "datastream" provides an encapsulation of the SCAP source components required to, for example, perform configuration assessment on a given endpoint. These source components include XCCDF checklists, OVAL Definitions, and CPE Dictionary information. A single "datastream collection" may encapsulate multiple "datastreams", and reference any number of SCAP components. Datastream collections were intended to provide an envelope enabling transfer of SCAP data more easily.

The [NIST800126] specification also defines the "SCAP result data stream" as being conformant to the Asset Reporting Format specification, defined in [NISTIR7694]. The Asset Reporting Format provides an encapsulation of the SCAP source components, Asset Information, and SCAP result components, such as system characteristics and state evaluation results.

What [NIST800126]did not do is specify the interface for finding or acquiring source datastream information, nor an interface for publishing result information. Discovering the actual resources for this information could be done via ROLIE, as described in the Policy Services section above, but other repositories of SCAP data exist as well.

B.4. Network Configuration Collection

[draft-birkholz-sacm-yang-content] illustrates a SACM Component incorporating a YANG Push client function and an XMPP-grid publisher function. [draft-birkholz-sacm-yang-content] further states "the output of the YANG Push client function is encapsulated in a SACM Content Element envelope, which is again encapsulated in a SACM statement envelope" which are published, essentially, via an XMPP-Grid Connector for SACM Components also part of the XMPP-Grid.

This is a specific example of an existing collection mechanism being adapted to the XMPP-Grid message transfer system.

Authors' Addresses

Adam W. Montville Center for Internet Security 31 Tech Valley Drive East Greenbush, NY 12061 USA EMail:
Bill Munyan Center for Internet Security 31 Tech Valley Drive East Greenbush, NY 12061 USA EMail: