I2NSF WG S. Hares
Internet-Draft R. Moskowitz
Intended status: Informational Huawei
Expires: January 21, 2017 D. Zhang
July 20, 2016

Analysis of Existing work for I2NSF


This document analyzes the current state of the art for security management devices and security devices technologies in industries and the existing IETF work/protocols that are relevant to the Interface to Network Security Function (I2NSF). The I2NSF focus is to define data models and interfaces in order to control and monitor the physical and virtual aspects of network security functions.

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction

This documents provides a gap analysis for I2NSF.

1.1. What is I2NSF

A Network Security Function (NSF) ensures integrity, confidentiality and availability of network communications, detects unwanted activity, and/or blocks out or at least mitigates the effects of unwanted activity. NSFs are provided and consumed in increasingly diverse environments. For example, users of NSFs could consume network security services offered on multiple security products hosted one or more service provider,their own enterprises, or a combination of the two.

The lack of standard interfaces to control and monitor the behavior of NSFs makes it virtually impossible for security service providers to automate service offerings that utilize different security functions from multiple vendors.

The Interface to Network Service Functions (I2NSF) work proposes to standardize a set of software interfaces to control and monitor the physical and virtual NSFs. Since different security vendors support different features and functions, the I2NSF will focus on the flow-based NSFs that provide treatment to packets or flows such found in IPS/IDS devices, web filtering devices, flow filtering devices, deep packet inspection devices, pattern matching inspection devices, and re-mediation devices.

There are two layers of interfaces envisioned in the I2NSF approach:

For the I2NSF Capability Layer, the I2NSF work proposes an interoperable protocol that passes NSF provisioning rules and orchestration information between the I2NSF client on a network manager and the I2NSF agent on an NSF. It is envisioned that clients of the I2NSF interfaces include management applications, service orchestration systems, network controllers, or user applications that may solicit network security resources.

The I2NSF work to define this protocol includes the following work:

1.2. Structure of this Document

This document provides an analysis of the gaps in the state of art in the following industry forums:

1.3. Terms and Definitions

1.3.1. Requirements Terminology

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119, BCP 14 [RFC2119] and indicate requirement levels for compliant CoAP.

1.3.2. Definitions

The following are a few definitions out of the terminology draft utilized in this draft. For additional definitions please see: [I-D.hares-i2nsf-terminology].

Network Security Function (NSF):
is a function that is provided as a set of security-related service function. Typically, an NSF may be responsible for detecting unwanted activity and blocking/ mitigating the effect of such unwanted activity in order to fulfil the service requirements. The NSF can help in supporting communication stream integrity and confidentiality.
Cloud Data Center (DC):
A data center that may/may not be run on the premises of enterprises, but has compute/storage resources that can be requested or purchased by the enterprises. The enterprise is actually getting a virtual data center. The Cloud Security Alliance (CSA) (http://cloudsecurityalliance.org) focuses on adding security to this environment. A specific research topic is security as a service within the cloud data center.
Cloud-based security functions:
Network Security Functions (NSFs) that may be hosted and managed by service providers or a different administrative entity.
The term Domain in this draft has the following different connotations in different scenarios:

The domain context is important because it indicates the interactions the security is focused on.

I2NSF server/agent:
A software instance that implements a network security function that receives provisioning information and requests operational data (e.g. monitoring data) from an I2NSF client. It is also responsible for enforcing the policies that it receives from an I2NSF client.
I2NSF client:
A security client software that utilizes the I2NSF protocol to read, write or change the provisioning network security device via software interface using the I2NSF protocol (denoted as I2RS Agent)
I2NSF Management System:
I2NSF Client operates within an network management system which serves as a collections and distribution point for security provisioning and filter data.

2. IETF Gap analysis

The IETF gap analysis first examines the IETF mechanisms which have been developed to secure the IP traffic flows through a network. Traffic filters have been defined by IETF specifications at the access points, the middle-boxes, or the routing systems. Protocols have been defined to carry provisioning and filtering traffic between a management system and an IP system (router or host system). Current security work (SACM working group (WG), MILE WG, and DOTS WG) is providing correlation of events monitored with the policy set by filters. This section provides a review the filter work, protocols, and security correlation for monitors.

2.1. Traffic Filters

2.1.1. Overview

The earliest filters defined by IETF were access filters which controlled the acceptance of IP packet data flows. Additional policy filters were created as part of the following protocols:

Today NETMOD and I2RS Working groups are specifying additional filters in YANG modules to be used as part of the NETCONF or I2RS enhancement of NETCONF/RESTCONF.

Route filtering is outside the scope of the flow filtering, but the flow filtering may be impacted by route filtering. An initial model for routing policy is in [I-D.ietf-rtgwg-policy-model]

This section provides an overview of the flow filtering as an introduction to the I2NSF Gap analysis. Additional detail on NETCONF, NETMOD, I2RS, PCP, and NSIS is available in Section 7. Data Flow Filters in NETMOD and I2RS

The current work on expanding these filters is focused oncombining a configuration and monitoring protocol with YANG data models. [I-D.ietf-netmod-acl-model] provides a set of access list filters which can permit or deny traffic flow based on headers at the MAC Layer, IP Layer, and Transport Layer. The configuration and monitoring protocols which can pass the filters are: NETCONF protocol [RFC6241], RESTCONF [I-D.ietf-netconf-restconf], and the I2RS protocol. The NETCONF and RESTCONF protocols install these filters into forwarding tables. The I2RS protocol uses the ACLs as part of the filters installed in an ephemeral protocol-independent filter-based RIB [I-D.kini-i2rs-fb-rib-info-model] which controls the flow of traffic on interfaces specifically controlled by the I2RS filter-based FIB.

   +---------------+    /  \     +---------------+
   | Device: ACLs  |-- /     \---|Device: ACLS   |
   | I2RS FB RIB   |             | I2RS FIB RIB  |
   |routing policy |             | routing policy|
   |               |             |               |
   +---------------+  data flow  +---------------+
        Figure 1

The I2RS protocol is a programmatic interface to the routing system. At this time, the I2RS is targeted to be extensions to the NETCONF/RESTCONF protocols to allow the NETCONF/RESTCONF protocol to support a highly programmatic interface with high bandwidth of data, highly reliable notifications, and ephemeral state (see [I-D.ietf-i2rs-architecture]). See Section 7.2 on I2RS for additional details on I2RS.

The vocabulary of the [I-D.ietf-netmod-acl-model] is limited, so additional protocol independent filters has been written for the I2RS Filter-Based RIBs in [I-D.hares-i2rs-pkt-eca-data-model].

One thing important to note is that NETCONF and RESTCONF manage device layer YANG models. However, as Figure 2 shows, there are multiple device level, network-wide level, and application level YANG modules. The access lists defined by the device level forwarding table may be impacted by the routing protocols, the I2RS ephemeral protocol independent Filter-Based FIB, or some network-wide security issue (IPS/IDS).

|Application Network Wide: Intent            |
|Network-wide level: L3SM L3VPN service model|
|Device level: Protocol Independent: I2RS    |
| RIB, Topology, Filter-Based RIB            |
|Device Level:Protocol YANG modules          |
| (ISIS, OSPF, BGP, EVPN, L2VPN, L3VPN, etc.)    
| Device level: IP and System: NETMOD Models | 
| (config and oper-state), tunnels,          | 
|  forwarding filters                        |
 Figure 2 Levels of YANG modules I2NSF Gap analysis

The gap is that none of the current work on these filters considers all the variations of data necessary to do IPS/IDS, web-filters, stateful flow-based filtering, security-based deep packet inspection, or pattern matching with re-mediation. The I2RS Filter-Based RIB work is the closest associated work, but the focus has not been on IDS/IPS, web-filters, security-based deep packet inspection, or pattern matching with re-mediation.

The I2RS Working group (I2RS WG) is focused on the routing system so the requisite security expertise for such NSFs (IDP/IPS, Web-filter, security-based deep-packet inspection, etc.) has not been targeted for this WG.

Another gap is there is no capability registry (an IANA registry) that identifies the characteristics and behaviours of NSFs in vendor-neutral vocabulary without requiring the NSFs to be standardized.

What I2NSF can use from NETCONF/RESTCONF and I2RS

I2NSF should consider using NETCONF/RESTCONF protocol and the I2RS proposed enhancement to the NETCONF/RESTCONF protocol.

2.1.2. Middle-box Filters Midcom

Midcom Summary: MIDCOM developed the protocols for applications to communicate with middle boxes. However, MIDCOM have not been used by the industry for a long time. A main reason is that MIDCOM had a lot of IPR encumbered technology and IPR was likely a bigger problem for IETF at that time than it is today. MIDCOM is not specific to SIP. It was very much oriented to NAT/FW devices. SIP was just one application that needed the functionality. MIDCOM is reservation-oriented and there was an expectation that the primary deployment environment would be VoIP and real-time conferencing, including SIP, H.323, and other reservation-oriented protocols. There was an assumption that there would be some authoritative service that would have a view into endpoint sessions and be able to authorize (or not) resource allocation requests. In other words, there is a trust model in MIDCOM that may not be applicable to endpoint-driven requests without some sort of trusted authorization mechanisms/tools. Therefore, there is a specific information model applied to security devices, and security device requests, that was developed in the context of an SNMP MIB. There is also a two-stage reservation model, which was specified in order to allow better resource management.

Why I2NSF is Different from Midcom

MIDCOM is different from I2NSF because its SNMP scheme does not work with the virtual network security functions (vNSF) management.

MidCom RFCs:

2.1.3. Security Work Overview

Today's NSFs in security devices can handle flow-based security by providing treatment to packets/flows, such as IPS/IDS, Web filtering, flow filtering, deep packet inspection, or pattern matching and re-mediation. These flow-based security devices are managed and provisioned by network management systems.

No standardized set of interoperable interfaces control and manage the NSFs so that a central management system can be used across security devices from multiple Vendors. I2NSF work plan is to standardize a set of interfaces by which control and management of NSFs may be invoked, operated, and monitored by:

The flow-filtering configuration and management must fit into the existing security area's work plan. This section considers how the I2NSF fits into the security area work under way in the SACM (Security Automation and Continuous Monitoring), DOTS (DDoS Open Threat Signalling), and MILE (Management Incident Lightweight Exchange). Security Work and Filters

In the proposed I2NSF work plan, the I2NSF security network management system controls many NSF nodes via the I2NSF Agent. This control of data flows is similar to the COPS example in Section 7.4.

             | I2NSF      |       
             | Client     |
             |            |			 
             | security   |
             | NMS system |			 
   +-----+    /  \    +-----+
   |I2NSF|--/     \---|I2NSF|
   |Agent|            |Agent|
   |     |            |     |
   | NSF |            | NSF |
 --| ----|------------|-----|-----
   +-----+  data flow +-----+
     Figure 2 

The other security protocols work to interact within the network to provide additional information in the following way: I2NSF interaction

The network management system that the I2NSF client resides on may interact with other clients or agents developed for the work ongoing in the SACM, DOTS, and MILES working groups. This section describes how the addition of I2NSF's ability to control and monitor NSF devices is compatible and synergistic with these existing efforts.

             +----------+    +------+
 +--------+  | security |====| DOTS |    
 |SACNM   |  | NMS      |    |client|---+
 |consumer|  |..........|\  +------+    |
 +--------+==|SACM  *1  | \             |
        +----|repository|  \            |
        |    |..........|   +-------+   |
        |    | I2NSF    |   |MILES  |   |
 +------|-+  | client   |   |client |   |
 |SACM    |  +----------+   +-----:-+   |
 |Info.   |     / \               :     |
 |provider|    /   \              :     |
 +--------+   /     \             :     |
   +-----+   /       \    +-----+ :     |
   |I2NSF|--/         \---|I2NSF| :     |
   |     |                |     | :     |
   |     |                |MILES|.:     |
   |     |                |Agent|       |
   |     |                |DOTS |       |
   |     |                |Agent|-------+
 --| ----|----------------|-----|-----
   +-----+  data flow     +-----+
 *1 - this is the SACM Controller (CR) with
      its broker/proxy/repository show as 
	  described in the SACM architecture.
     Figure 3 

Figure 3 provides a diagram of a system in which the I2NSF, SACM, DOTS and MILE client-agent or consumer-broker-provider are deployed together. The following are possible positive interactions these scenario might have: Benefits from the Interaction

I2NSF's ability to provide a common interoperable and vendor neutral interface may allow the security NMS to use a single change to change filters. SACM provides an information model to describe end-points, but does not link this directly to filters.

DOTS creates black-lists based on source and destination IP address, transport port number, protocol ID, and traffic rate. Like ACLs defined NETMOD, the DOTS black-lists are not sufficient for all filters or control desired by the NSF boxes.

The incident data captured by MILE will not have enough filter information to provide NSF devices with general services. The I2NSF will be able to handle the MILE incident data and create alerts or reports for other security systems.


3.1. ETSI Overview

Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) provides service providers with flexibility, cost effective and agility to offer their services to customers. One such service is the network security function which guards the exterior of a service provider or its customers. However, the exterior network beyond the service provider NSFs or its customer's NSFs is becoming extremely narrow as NSFs are becoming more pervasive in any portion of networks (service providers, customers, or access networks).

The flexibility and agility of NFV encourages service providers to provide different products to address business trends in their market to provide better service offerings to their end user. A traditional product such as the network security function (NSF) may be broken into multiple virtual devices each hosted from another vendor. In the past, network security devices may have been sourced from a small set of vendors - but in the NFV version of NSF devices, this reduced set of sources will not provide a competitive edge. Due to this market shift, the network security vendors are realizing that the proprietary provisioning protocols and formats of data may be a liability. Out of the NFV work has arisen a desire for a single interoperable network security device provisioning and control protocol.

The I2NSF framework is complementary to the NFV and other security frameworks. The I2NSF management protocol will be deployed in networks to provide a common management protocol to manage NSF software/devices whether the devices are physical or virtual. The ETSI NFV security is also deployed along-side other security functions (AAA, SACM, DOTS, or MILE devices) and deep-packet stateful inspections.

The ETSI Network Functions Virtualization: NFV security: Security and Trust Guidance document (ETSI NFV SEC 003 1.1.1 (2014-12)) indicates that multiple administrative domains will deployed in carrier networks. One example of these multiple domains is hosting of multiple tenant domains (telecom service providers) on a single infrastructure domain (infrastructure service) as Figure 4 shows. The ETSI Inter-VNFM document (aka Ve-Vnfn) between the element management system and the Virtual network function is the equivalent of the interface between the I2NSF client on a management system and the I2NSF agent on the network security feature VNF.

 +--:   OSS/BSS         :
 |   ....................
 |  +-------------------------+
 |  |                         |
 |  | ........   ........     | 
 |  | :  EMS1 :   : EMS  :    |  ETSI inter-VNFM 
 |  | ....||...   ...||...    |  (Ve-Vnfn)
 |  |     ||         || ==========I2NSF interface 
 |  | ....||...   ...||...    |
 |  | :  VNF1 :   : VNF1 :    | Tenant domain 
 |  | ....||...   ...||...    |  
 |  | ....||..... ...||...... | infrastructure 
 |  | :virtual  : :virtual  : | domain 
 |  | :computing: :computing: | with virtual 
 |  | ........... ........... | network
 |  | +=====================+ ---------
 |  | | virtualization layer|           | 
 |  | +=====================+           |
 |  | ........... .......... .......... |
 |====:computing: :storage : :network : |
    | :hardware : :hardware: :hardware: | 
	| ........... .......... .......... |
	|  hardware resources               |
    Figure 4 	  

The ETSI proof-of-concept demonstrations have been done for the security proof of concepts:

3.2. I2NSF Gap Analysis

The I2NSF protocol/interface can be deployed for security devices along-side the network/host configuration done by NETCONF/RESTCONF or the routing system interface provided by I2RS that handles.

In the current NFV-related architecture, there is no interoperable protocol defined between a security manager and various NSF devices to provision security functions. The result is that service providers have to manage the interoperability security manager and different NSF devices using proprietary protocols. In response to this problem, the device manufacturers and the service providers have begun to discuss an I2NSF protocol for interoperable passing of provisioning and filter in formation.

Open source work (such as OPNFV) provides a common code base on which providers may start their NFV development work. However, this code base faces the same problem. There is no defacto standard protocol.


The OPNFV (www.opnfv.org) is a carrier-grade integrated, open source platform focused on accelerating the introduction of new Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) products and service. The OPNFV Moon project is focused on adding the security interface for a network management system within the tenant NFVs and the infrastructure NFVs (as shown in Figure 4). This section provides an overview of the OPNFV Moon project and a gap analysis between I2NSF and the OPNFV Moon Project.

4.1. OPNFV Moon Project

The OPNFV Moon project (https://wiki.opnfv.org) is a security management system. NFV uses cloud computing technologies to virtualize the resources and automate the control. The Moon project is working on a security manager for the cloud computing infrastructure (https://wiki.opnfv.org/moon). The Moon project proposes to provision a set of different cloud resources/services for VNFs (Virtualized Network Functions) while managing the isolation of VNS, protection of VNFs, and monitoring of VNS. Moon is creating a security management system for OPNFV with security managers to protect different layers of the NFV infrastructure. The Moon project is choosing various security project mechanisms “a la carte” to enforcement related security managers. A security management system integrates mechanisms of different security aspects. This project intends propose a security manager that specifies users’ security requirements. It will also enforce the security managers through various mechanisms like authorization for access control, firewall for networking, isolation for storage, logging for tractability, etc.

The Moon security manager operates a VNF security manager at the ETSI VeVnfm level where the I2NSF protocol is targeted as Figure 5 shows. This figure also shows how the OPNFV VNF Security project mixes the I2NSF level with the device level.

The Moon project lists the following gaps in OpenStack:

Moon addresses these issues adding authorization, logging, IDS, enforcement of network policy, and storage protection. Moon release C (2016) plans to:

Deliverable time frame: Moon Release 3 (mid-year 2016)

 +--:   OSS/BSS         :
 |   ....................
 |  +-------------------------+
 |  |                         |
 |  | ........   ........     | 
 |  | :  EMS1 :   : EMS  :    |  ETSI inter-VNFM 
 |  | ....||...   ...||...    |  (Ve-Vnfn)
 |  |     ||         || ==========I2NSF interface 
 |  | ....||...   ...||...    | Moon VNF === Moon VNF    
 |  | :       :   :      :    | Security     Security MGR
 |  | :  VNF1 :   : VNF1 :    |  
 |  | ....||...   ...||...    | Tenant domain 
 |  | ....||..... ...||...... | infrastructure 
 |  | :virtual  : :virtual  : | domain 
 |  | :computing: :computing: | with virtual 
 |  | ........... ........... | network
 |  | +=====================+ |--------
 |  | | virtualization layer| |        
 |  | +=====================+ 
 |  |                =============Moon VNF ===Moon VI 
|   |                     security project    Security MGR
 |  | ........... .......... .......... |
 |====:computing: :storage : :network : |
    | :hardware : :hardware: :hardware: | 
    | ........... .......... .......... |
    |  hardware resources               |
    Figure 5 	  

4.2. Gap Analysis for OPNFV Moon Project

OpenStack Congress does not provide vendor independent systems.

5. OpenStack Security Firewall

OpenStack has advanced features of: a) API for managing security groups (http://docs.openstack.org/admin-guide-cloud/content/section_securitygroups.html) and b) firewalls as a service (http://docs.openstack.org/admin-guide-cloud/content/fwaas_api_abstractions.html).

This section provides an overview of this open stack work, and a gap analysis of how I2NSF provides additional functions

5.1. Overview of API for Security Group

The security group rules provide ingress and egress traffic filters based on port. The default rule for the group policy drops all ingress traffic and allows all egress traffic. The group policy allows users to add additional groups with additional filters that change the default behaviour. To utilize the security groups, the networking plug-in for OpenStack must implement the security group API. The following plug-ins in OpenStack currently implement this security: ML2, Open vSwitch, Linux Bridge, NEC, and VMware NSX. In addition, the correct firewall driver must be added to make this functional.

5.2. Overview of Firewall as a Service

Firewall as a service is an early release of an API that allows early adopters to test network implementations. It contains APIs with parameters for firewall rules, firewall policies, and firewall identifiers. The firewall rules include the following information:

The firewall policies include the following information:

The firewall table provides the following information:

5.3. I2NSF Gap analysis

The OpenStack work is preliminary (security groups and firewall as a service). This work does not allow any of the existing network security vendors provide a management interface. The OpenStack work provides an interesting simple set of filters, and may in the future provide some virtual filter service. However, at this time this open source work does not address the need for a single management interfaces for a variety of security devices.

Phase 1 of I2NSF is proposes rules that will include Event-Condition-Action matches (ECA) rules with:

6. CSA Secure Cloud

6.1. CSA Overview

The Cloud Security Alliance (CSA)(www.cloudsecurityaliance.org) defined security as a service (SaaS) in their Security as a Service working group (SaaS WG) during 2010-2012. The CSA SaaS group defined ten categories of network security (https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/secaas/SecaaS_V1_0.pdf) and provides implementation guidance for each of these ten categories. This section provides an overview of the CSA SaaS working groups documentation and a gap analysis for I2NSF

6.1.1. CSA Security as a Service (SaaS)

The CSA SaaS working group defined the following ten categories, and provided implementation guidance on these categories:

  1. Identity Access Management (IAM) (https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/secaas/SecaaS_Cat_1_IAM_Implementation_Guidance.pdf)
  2. Data Loss Prevention (DLP) (https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/secaas/SecaaS_Cat_2_DLP_Implementation_Guidance.pdf)
  3. Web Security (web) (https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/secaas/SecaaS_Cat_3_Web_Security_Implementation_Guidance.pdf),
  4. Email Security (email) (https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/secaas/SecaaS_Cat_4_Email_Security_Implementation_Guidance.pdf),
  5. Security Assessments (https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/secaas/SecaaS_Cat_5_Security_Assessments_Implementation_Guidance.pdf),
  6. Intrusion Management (https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/secaas/SecaaS_Cat_6_Intrusion_Management_Implementation_Guidance.pdf),
  7. Security information and Event Management (https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/secaas/SecaaS_Cat_7_SIEM_Implementation_Guidance.pdf),
  8. Encryption (https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/secaas/SecaaS_Cat_8_Encryption_Implementation_Guidance.pdf),
  9. Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery (BCDR) https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/secaas/SecaaS_Cat_9_BCDR_Implementation_Guidance.pdf), and
  10. Network Security (https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/secaas/SecaaS_Cat_10_Network_Security_Implementation_Guidance.pdf).

The sections below give an overview these implementation guidelines.

6.1.2. Identity Access Management (IAM)

document: (https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/secaas/SecaaS_Cat_1_IAM_Implementation_Guidance.pdf)

The identity management systems include the following services:

 +------------+                      +--------+
 | IAM device | ---- SLA ------------| secure |    
 |            |     Access review    | access |
 |            |    security events   |  NMS   |
 |            |    access tracing    |        |
 +---||-------+    Audit report      +---||---+
     ||                                  ||    
     ||         +------------------+     ||       
     ========== |Filter enforcement|=====||
   Figure 6	 

The IAM device communications with the security management system that controls the filtering of data. The CSA SaaS IAM specification states that interoperability between IAM devices and secure access network management systems is a problem. This 2012 implementation report confirms there is a gap with IAM.

6.1.3. Data Loss Prevention (DLP)

Document: (https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/secaas/SecaaS_Cat_2_DLP_Implementation_Guidance.pdf)

The data loss prevention (DLP) services must address:

The CSA SaaS DLP device communications require that it have the enforcement capabilities to do the following:

 +------------+                      +--------+
 | DLP device | ---- SLA ------------| secure |    
 |            |    Alert and log     | access |
 |            |    delete data       |  NMS   |
 |            |    filter/reroute    |        |
 +---||-------+    encrypt data      +---||---+
     ||                                  ||    
     ||         +------------------+     ||       
     ========== |Filter enforcement|=====||
   Figure 7	 

6.1.4. Web Security (Web)

Document: https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/secaas/SecaaS_Cat_3_Web_Security_Implementation_Guidance.pdf

The web security services must address:

The CSA SaaS Web services device communications require that it have the enforcement capabilities to do the following:

 +------------+                      +--------+
 |Web security| ---- SLA ------------| secure |    
 |            |    Alert and log     | access |
 |            |    delete data       |  NMS   |
 |            | filter/reroute data  |        |
 |            | ensure bandwidth/QOS |        |
 |            | monitor encrypted    |        |
 |            |    data              |        | 
 +---||-------+    encrypt data      +---||---+
     ||                                  ||    
     ||         +------------------+     ||       
     ========== |Filter enforcement|=====||
   Figure 8	 

All of these features either require the I2NSF standardized I2NSF client to I2NSF agent to provide multi-vendor interoperability.

6.1.5. Email Security (email))

Document: https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/secaas/SecaaS_Cat_4_Email_Security_Implementation_Guidance.pdf

The CSA Document recommends that email security services must address:

The CSA SaaS Email security services requires that it have the enforcement capabilities to do the following:

 +------------+                      +--------+
 |   Email    | ---- SLA ------------| secure |    
 |  security  | alert/log malware    | access |
 |            | alert/log email spam |  NMS   |
 |            | filter/reroute data  |        |
 |            | ensure bandwidth/QOS |        |
 |            | monitor encrypted    |        |
 |            |    data              |        | 
 +---||-------+    encrypt data      +---||---+
     ||                                  ||    
     ||         +------------------+     ||       
     ========== |Filter enforcement|=====||
   Figure 9

All of these features require the I2NSF standardized I2NSF client to I2NSF agent to provide multi-vendor interoperability.

6.1.6. Security Assessment

Document: https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/secaas/SecaaS_Cat_5_Security_Assessments_Implementation_Guidance.pdf

The CSA SaaS Security assessment indicates that assessments need to be done on the following devices:

All of these features require the I2NSF working group standardize the way to pass these assessments to and from the I2NSF client on the I2NSF management system and the I2NSF Agent.

6.1.7. Intrusion Detection

Document: https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/secaas/SecaaS_Cat_6_Intrusion_Management_Implementation_Guidance.pdf)

The CSA SaaS Intrusion detection management includes intrusion detection through: devices:

Intrusion response includes both:

The CSA SaaS recommends the intrusion security management systems include provisioning and monitoring of all of these types of intrusion detection or intrusion protection devices. Management of these systems requires:

 +------------+                      +--------+
 |  IDS/IPS   | ---- Info  ----------| secure |    
 |  security  | alert/log intrusion  | access |
 |            | notify administrator |  NMS   |
 |            | Map alerts to Tenant |        |
 |            |filter/reroute traffic|        |
 |            | remote data storage  |        |     
 +---||-------+                      +---||---+
     ||                                  ||    
     ||         +------------------+     ||       
     ========== |Filter enforcement|=====||
   Figure 10	 

In order to be able performing these management actions on NSF devices from different vendors, the intrusion security management systems need a standard mangement protocol that all the NSF vendors support.

6.1.8. Security Information and Event Management(SIEM)

Document: https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/secaas/SecaaS_Cat_7_SIEM_Implementation_Guidance.pdf)

The Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) receives data from a wide range of security systems such as Identity management systems (IAM), data loss prevention (DLP), web security (Web), email security (email), intrusion detection/prevision (IDS/IPS)), encryption, disaster recovery, and network security. The SIEM combines this data into a single streams. All the requirements for data to/from these systems are replicated in these systems needs to give a report to the SIEM system.

A SIEM system would be a prime candidate to have an I2NSF client that gathers data from an I2NSF Agent associated with these various types of security systems. The CSA SaaS SIEM functionality document suggests that one concern is to have standards that allow timely recording and sharing of data. I2NSF can provide this.

6.1.9. Encryption

Document: https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/secaas/SecaaS_Cat_8_Encryption_Implementation_Guidance.pdf

The CSA SaaS encryption implementation guidance document considers how one implements and manages the following security systems:

Encryption services typically require that security management systems be able to provision, monitor, and control the systems that are being used to encrypt data. This document indicates in the implementation sections that the standardization of interfaces to/from management systems are key to good key management systems, encryption systems, and crypto-systems.

6.1.10. Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery (BC/DR)

Document: https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/secaas/SecaaS_Cat_9_BCDR_Implementation_Guidance.pdf

The CSA SaaS Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery (BC/DR) implementation guidance document considers the systems that implement the contingency plans and measures designed and implemented to ensure operational resiliency in the event of any service interruptions. BC/DR systems includes:

These BC/DR systems must handle data backup and recovery, server backup/recovery, and data center (virtual/physical) backup and recovery. Recovery as a Service (RaaS) means that the BC/DR services are being handled by management systems outside the enterprise.

BC/DR requires security management systems to be able to communicate provisioning, monitor, and control those systems that are being used to back-up and restore data. An interoperable protocol that allows provision and control of data center's data, servers, and data center management devices devices is extremely important to this application. Recovery as a Service (SaaS) indicates that these services need to be able to be remotely management.

The CSA SaaS BC/BR documents indicate how important a standardized I2NSF protocol is.

6.1.11. Network Security Devices

Document: https://downloads.cloudsecurityalliance.org/initiatives/secaas/SecaaS_Cat_10_Network_Security_Implementation_Guidance.pdf

The CSA SaaS Network Security implementation recommendation includes advice on:

These network security systems require provisioning, monitoring, and the ability for the security management system to subscribe to receive logs, snapshots of capture data, and time synchronization. This document states the following:

The CSA SaaS network security indicates that the I2NSF must be secure so that the I2NSF Client-Agent protocol does not become a valid threat vector. In additions, the need for the management protocol like I2NSF is critical in the sprawl of Cloud environment.

6.2. I2NSF Gap Analysis

The CSA Security as a Service (SaaS) document show clearly that there is a gap between the ability of the CSA SaaS devices to have a vendor neutral, inoperable protocol that allow the multiple of network security devices to communicate passing provisioning and informational data. Each of the 10 implementation agreements points to this as a shortcoming. Standard I2NSF YANG models and an I2NSF protocol are needed according to the CSA SaaS documents.

7. IEEE security

7.1. Port-based Network Access Control [802.1X]

802.1x defines encapsulation of Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) [RFC3748] over IEEE 802 (EAP over LAN, or EAPOL). It is widely deployed on both wired and Wi-Fi Networks.

EAP provides support for security from passwords to challenge-response tokens and public-key infrastructure certificates.

802.1 has three concepts:

A normal sequence is below:

supplicant     authenticator          authentication server 
===========    ===================    ========================
       <---- EAP-Request/Identity

  response ---------> 
					   Response ---------> 


This basic service provides access, but today's access use cases are more complex. IEEE 801.X has ben attched using the Man-in-the-middle attacks. Another weakness of 802.1X is the speed of the EAP protocols processing with the radius server.

Note: Editor - more is needed here

7.2. MAC security (802.1AE)

MACsec security secures a link rather than a conversation for 802.1 LANs (VLANs 802.1Q, Provider Bridges 802.1AD). MACsec counters the 802.1X man-in the middle attacks.

MACsec (in 802.1AE) provides MAC-layer encryption over wired networks by using out-of-band methods for encryption keying. The MACsec Key Agreement (MKA) Protocol provides the required session keys and manages the required encryption keys. MKA and MACsec are implemented after successful authentication using the 802.1x Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP) framework. Only hosts link which face the network can be secured with MACSec. These links connect the host to the network access devices.

Switch using MACsec accepts either MACsec or non-MACsec frames based on policy set. The NSF controller can set within the switches configuration whether MACSec frames are accepted. Accepted MACsec frames are encrypted and protected with an integrity check value (ICV). The switch after receiving frames from the client, decrypts them and calculates the correct ICV by using session keys provided by MKA. The switch compares that ICV to the ICV within the frame. If they are not identical, the frame is dropped. The switch also encrypts and adds an ICV to any frames sent over the secured port (the access point used to provide the secure MAC service to a client) using the current session key.

The MKA Protocol manages the encryption keys used by the underlying MACsec protocol. The basic requirements of MKA are defined in 802.1x-REV. The MKA Protocol extends 802.1x to allow peer discovery with confirmation of mutual authentication and sharing of MACsec secret keys to protect data exchanged by the peers. MKA protocol ues EAP-over-LAN (EAPOL) packet. EAP authentication produces a master session key (MSK) shared by both partners in the data exchange. Entering the EAP session ID generates a secure connectivity association key name (CKN). Because the switch is the authenticator, and the key serer, it can generating a random 128-bit secure association key (SAK), which it sends it to the client partner. The client is never a key server and can only interact with a single MKA entity, the key server. After key derivation and generati

Gap Analysis:

I2NSF Devices must handle the existence of MSEC within the network.

7.3. Secure Device Identity [802.1AR]

802.1AR does the following:

GAP analysis:

I2NSF controllers need to support 802.1AR device management.

8. In-depth Review of IETF protocols


The IETF NETCONF working group has developed the basics of the NETCONF protocol focusing on secure configuration and querying operational state. The NETCONF protocol [RFC6241] may be run over TLS [RFC6639] or SSH ([RFC6242]. NETCONF can be expanded to defaults [RFC6243], handling events ([RFC5277] and basic notification [RFC6470], and filtering writes/reads based on network access control models (NACM, [RFC6536]). The NETCONF configuration must be committed to a configuration data store (denoted as config=TRUE). YANG models identify nodes within a configuration data store or an operational data store using a XPath expression (document root ---to --- target source). NETCONF uses an RPC model and provides protocol for handling configs (get-config, edit-config, copy-config, delete-config, lock, unlock, get) and sessions (close-session, kill-session). The NETCONF Working Group has developed RESTCONF, which is an HTTP-based protocol that provides a programmatic interface for accessing data defined in YANG, using the data stores defined in NETCONF.

RESTCONF supports “two edit condition detections” – time stamp and entity tag. RESTCONF uses URI encoded path expressions. RESTCONF provides operations to get remote servers options (OPTIONS), retrieve data headers (HEAD), get data (GET), create resource/invoke operation (POST), patch data (PATCH), delete resource (DELETE), or query.


8.2. I2RS Protocol

Based on input from the NETCONF working group, the I2RS working group decided to re-use the NETCONF or RESTCONF protocols and specify additions to these protocols rather than create yet another protocol (YAP).

The required extensions for the I2RS protocol are in the following drafts:

At this time, NETCONF and RESTCONF cannot handle the ephemeral data store proposed by I2RS, the publication and subscription requirements, the traceability, or the security requirements for the transport protocol and message integrity.

8.3. NETMOD YANG modules

NETMOD developed initial YANG models for interfaces [RFC7223]), IP address ([RFC7277]), IPv6 Router advertisement ([RFC7277]), IP Systems ([RFC7317]) with system ID, system time management, DNS resolver, Radius client, SSH, syslog ([I-D.ietf-netmod-syslog-model]), ACLS ([I-D.ietf-netmod-acl-model]), and core routing blocks ([I-D.ietf-netmod-routing-cfg] The routing working group (rtgwg) has begun to examine policy for routing and tunnels.

Protocol specific Working groups have developed YANG models for ISIS ([I-D.ietf-isis-yang-isis-cfg]), OSPF ([I-D.ietf-ospf-yang]), and BGP ([I-D.ietf-idr-bgp-model].

BGP Services YANG models have been proposed for

TEAS working group has proposed [I-D.ietf-teas-yang-te-topo], and [I-D.ietf-teas-yang-rsvp].

MPLS/PCE/CCAMP groups have proposed the following Yang modules:

8.4. COPS

One early focus on flow filtering based on policy enforcement of traffic entering a network is the 1990s COPS [RFC2748] design (PEP and PDP) as shown in Figure 11. The COPS policy decision points (PDP) managed network-wide policy (e.g. ACLs) by installing this policy in policy enforcement points (PEPs) on the edge of the network. These PEPs had firewall-like functions that control what data flows into the network at a PEP point, and data flow out of a network at a PEP. [RFC3084] describes COPS usages for policy provisioning.

   +-----+    /  \    +-----+
   |PEP1 |--/     \---|PEP2 |
   |     | ACL/policy |     |
   | 	 |	          |     |
 --| ----|------------|-----|-----
   +-----+  data flow +-----+
           Figure 11

Why COPS is no longer used

Network security today uses specific devices (IDS/IPS, NAT firewall, etc.) with specific policies and profiles for each types of device. No common protocol or policy format exists between the policy manager (PDP) and security enforcement points.

COPs RFCs: [RFC4261], [RFC2940], [RFC3084], and [RFC3483].

Why I2NSF is Different from COPS

COPS was a protocol for policy related to Quality of Service (QoS) and signaling protocols (e.g. RSVP) (security, flow, and others). I2NSF creates a common protocol between security policy decision points (SPDP) and security enforcement points (SEP). Today's security devices currently only use proprietary protocols. Manufacturers would like a security specific policy enforcement protocol rather than a generic policy protocol.

8.5. PCP

As indicated by the name, the Port Control Protocol (PCP) enables an IPv4 or IPv6 host to flexibly manage the IP address and port mapping information on Network Address Translators (NATs) or firewalls, to facilitate communication with remote hosts.


Why is I2NSF Different from PCP:

Here are some aspects that I2NSF is different from PCP:

8.6. NSIS - Next Steps in Signaling

NSIS aims to standardize an IP signaling protocol (RSVP) along the data path for end points to request their unique QoS characteristics, unique FW policies or NAT needs (RFC5973) that are different from the FW/NAT original settings. The requests are communicated directly to the FW/NAT devices. NSIS is like east-west protocols that require all involved devices to fully comply to make it work.

NSIS is path-coupled; it is possible to message every participating device along a path without having to know its location, or its location relative to other devices (This is particularly a pressing issue when one or more NATs present in the network, or when trying to locate appropriate tunnel endpoints).

           clients----I2NSF controller  
		               |   client 
                       | I2NSF
					   | server/agent
	+--------+       +--------+       +--------+
	|  host  |       |firewall|       | host   |
	+--------+ RSVP  +--------+ RSVP  +--------+ 

Why I2NSF is Different from NSIS:

Why I2NSF may have higher chance to be deployed than NSIS:

9. IANA Considerations

No IANA considerations exist for this document.

10. Security Considerations

No security considerations are involved with a gap analysis.

11. Contributors

The following people have contributed to this document: Hosnieh Rafiee, and Myo Zarny. Myo Zarny provided the authors with extensive comments, great suggestions, and valuable insights on alternative views.

12. References

12.1. Normative References

[RFC0791] Postel, J., "Internet Protocol", STD 5, RFC 791, DOI 10.17487/RFC0791, September 1981.
[RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997.

12.2. Informative References

[I-D.brissette-bess-evpn-yang] Brissette, P., Shah, H., Li, Z., Tiruveedhula, K., Singh, T. and I. Hussain, "Yang Data Model for EVPN", Internet-Draft draft-brissette-bess-evpn-yang-01, December 2015.
[I-D.hares-i2nsf-terminology] Hares, S., Strassner, J., Lopez, D. and L. Xia, "I2NSF Terminology", Internet-Draft draft-hares-i2nsf-terminology-00, March 2016.
[I-D.hares-i2rs-info-model-service-topo] Hares, S., Wu, W., Wang, Z. and J. You, "An Information model for service topology", Internet-Draft draft-hares-i2rs-info-model-service-topo-03, January 2015.
[I-D.hares-i2rs-pkt-eca-data-model] Hares, S., Wu, Q. and R. White, "Filter-Based Packet Forwarding ECA Policy", Internet-Draft draft-hares-i2rs-pkt-eca-data-model-02, February 2016.
[I-D.hu-bess-l2vpn-service-yang] hu, f., Chen, R. and J. Yao, "L2VPN Service YANG Model", Internet-Draft draft-hu-bess-l2vpn-service-yang-00, March 2016.
[I-D.ietf-i2rs-architecture] Atlas, A., Halpern, J., Hares, S., Ward, D. and T. Nadeau, "An Architecture for the Interface to the Routing System", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-i2rs-architecture-11, December 2015.
[I-D.ietf-i2rs-ephemeral-state] Haas, J. and S. Hares, "I2RS Ephemeral State Requirements", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-i2rs-ephemeral-state-14, July 2016.
[I-D.ietf-i2rs-problem-statement] Atlas, A., Nadeau, T. and D. Ward, "Interface to the Routing System Problem Statement", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-i2rs-problem-statement-11, May 2016.
[I-D.ietf-i2rs-protocol-security-requirements] Hares, S., Migault, D. and J. Halpern, "I2RS Security Related Requirements", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-i2rs-protocol-security-requirements-06, May 2016.
[I-D.ietf-i2rs-pub-sub-requirements] Voit, E., Clemm, A. and A. Prieto, "Requirements for Subscription to YANG Datastores", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-i2rs-pub-sub-requirements-09, May 2016.
[I-D.ietf-i2rs-rib-data-model] Wang, L., Ananthakrishnan, H., Chen, M., amit.dass@ericsson.com, a., Kini, S. and N. Bahadur, "A YANG Data Model for Routing Information Base (RIB)", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-i2rs-rib-data-model-06, July 2016.
[I-D.ietf-i2rs-rib-info-model] Bahadur, N., Kini, S. and J. Medved, "Routing Information Base Info Model", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-i2rs-rib-info-model-09, July 2016.
[I-D.ietf-i2rs-traceability] Clarke, J., Salgueiro, G. and C. Pignataro, "Interface to the Routing System (I2RS) Traceability: Framework and Information Model", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-i2rs-traceability-11, May 2016.
[I-D.ietf-i2rs-usecase-reqs-summary] Hares, S. and M. Chen, "Summary of I2RS Use Case Requirements", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-i2rs-usecase-reqs-summary-01, May 2015.
[I-D.ietf-i2rs-yang-l2-network-topology] Dong, J. and X. Wei, "A YANG Data Model for Layer-2 Network Topologies", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-i2rs-yang-l2-network-topology-03, July 2016.
[I-D.ietf-i2rs-yang-network-topo] Clemm, A., Medved, J., Varga, R., Tkacik, T., Bahadur, N., Ananthakrishnan, H. and X. Liu, "A Data Model for Network Topologies", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-i2rs-yang-network-topo-04, July 2016.
[I-D.ietf-idr-bgp-model] Shaikh, A., Shakir, R., Patel, K., Hares, S., D'Souza, K., Bansal, D., Clemm, A., Zhdankin, A., Jethanandani, M. and X. Liu, "BGP Model for Service Provider Networks", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-idr-bgp-model-01, January 2016.
[I-D.ietf-isis-yang-isis-cfg] Litkowski, S., Yeung, D., Lindem, A., Zhang, J. and L. Lhotka, "YANG Data Model for ISIS protocol", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-isis-yang-isis-cfg-02, March 2015.
[I-D.ietf-l3sm-l3vpn-service-model] Litkowski, S., Shakir, R., Tomotaki, L., Ogaki, K. and K. D'Souza, "YANG Data Model for L3VPN service delivery", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-l3sm-l3vpn-service-model-05, March 2016.
[I-D.ietf-netconf-call-home] Watsen, K., "NETCONF Call Home and RESTCONF Call Home", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-netconf-call-home-06, May 2015.
[I-D.ietf-netconf-restconf] Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M. and K. Watsen, "RESTCONF Protocol", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-netconf-restconf-04, January 2015.
[I-D.ietf-netconf-restconf-collection] Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M. and K. Watsen, "RESTCONF Collection Resource", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-netconf-restconf-collection-00, January 2015.
[I-D.ietf-netconf-zerotouch] Watsen, K., Clarke, J. and M. Abrahamsson, "Zero Touch Provisioning for NETCONF Call Home (ZeroTouch)", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-netconf-zerotouch-02, March 2015.
[I-D.ietf-netmod-acl-model] Bogdanovic, D., Sreenivasa, K., Huang, L. and D. Blair, "Network Access Control List (ACL) YANG Data Model", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-netmod-acl-model-02, March 2015.
[I-D.ietf-netmod-routing-cfg] Lhotka, L. and A. Lindem, "A YANG Data Model for Routing Management", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-netmod-routing-cfg-19, May 2015.
[I-D.ietf-netmod-syslog-model] Wildes, C. and K. Sreenivasa, "SYSLOG YANG model", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-netmod-syslog-model-03, March 2015.
[I-D.ietf-ospf-yang] Yeung, D., Qu, Y., Zhang, J., Bogdanovic, D. and K. Sreenivasa, "Yang Data Model for OSPF Protocol", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-ospf-yang-00, March 2015.
[I-D.ietf-pcp-authentication] Wasserman, M., Hartman, S., Zhang, D. and T. Reddy, "Port Control Protocol (PCP) Authentication Mechanism", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-pcp-authentication-09, May 2015.
[I-D.ietf-pcp-optimize-keepalives] Reddy, T., Patil, P., Isomaki, M. and D. Wing, "Optimizing NAT and Firewall Keepalives Using Port Control Protocol (PCP)", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-pcp-optimize-keepalives-06, May 2015.
[I-D.ietf-pcp-proxy] Perreault, S., Boucadair, M., Penno, R., Wing, D. and S. Cheshire, "Port Control Protocol (PCP) Proxy Function", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-pcp-proxy-08, May 2015.
[I-D.ietf-rtgwg-policy-model] Shaikh, A., Shakir, R., D'Souza, K. and C. Chase, "Routing Policy Configuration Model for Service Provider Networks", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-rtgwg-policy-model-00, September 2015.
[I-D.ietf-sacm-architecture] Cam-Winget, N., Lorenzin, L., McDonald, I. and l. loxx@cisco.com, "Secure Automation and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) Architecture", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-sacm-architecture-05, October 2015.
[I-D.ietf-sacm-terminology] Birkholz, H., Lu, J. and N. Cam-Winget, "Secure Automation and Continuous Monitoring (SACM) Terminology", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-sacm-terminology-09, March 2016.
[I-D.ietf-teas-yang-rsvp] Beeram, V., Saad, T., Gandhi, R., Liu, X., Shah, H., Chen, X., Jones, R. and B. Wen, "A YANG Data Model for Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP)", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-teas-yang-rsvp-03, March 2016.
[I-D.ietf-teas-yang-te-topo] Liu, X., Bryskin, I., Beeram, V., Saad, T., Shah, H. and O. Dios, "YANG Data Model for TE Topologies", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-teas-yang-te-topo-05, July 2016.
[I-D.kini-i2rs-fb-rib-info-model] Kini, S., Hares, S., Dunbar, L., Ghanwani, A., Krishnan, R., Bogdanovic, D. and R. White, "Filter-Based RIB Information Model", Internet-Draft draft-kini-i2rs-fb-rib-info-model-03, February 2016.
[I-D.li-bess-l3vpn-yang] Li, Z., Zhuang, S., Liu, X., Haas, J., Esale, S. and B. Wen, "Yang Data Model for BGP/MPLS IP VPN", Internet-Draft draft-li-bess-l3vpn-yang-00, October 2015.
[I-D.pkd-pce-pcep-yang] Dhody, D., Hardwick, J., Beeram, V. and j. jefftant@gmail.com, "A YANG Data Model for Path Computation Element Communications Protocol (PCEP)", Internet-Draft draft-pkd-pce-pcep-yang-06, July 2016.
[I-D.raza-mpls-ldp-mldp-yang] Raza, K., Asati, R., Liu, X., Esale, S., Chen, X. and H. Shah, "YANG Data Model for MPLS LDP and mLDP", Internet-Draft draft-raza-mpls-ldp-mldp-yang-04, July 2016.
[I-D.saad-mpls-static-yang] Saad, T., Raza, K., Gandhi, R., Liu, X., Beeram, V., Shah, H., Bryskin, I., Chen, X., Jones, R. and B. Wen, "A YANG Data Model for MPLS Static LSPs", Internet-Draft draft-saad-mpls-static-yang-03, May 2016.
[I-D.shah-bess-l2vpn-yang] Shah, H., Brissette, P., Rahman, R., Raza, K., Li, Z., Zhuang, S., Wang, H., Chen, I., Ahmed, S., Bocci, M., Hardwick, J., Esale, S., Tiruveedhula, K., tsingh@juniper.net, t., Hussain, I., Wen, B., Walker, J., Delregno, N., Jalil, L. and M. Joecylyn, "YANG Data Model for MPLS-based L2VPN", Internet-Draft draft-shah-bess-l2vpn-yang-01, March 2016.
[I-D.zhang-ccamp-transport-ctrlnorth-yang] Zhang, X., Jing, R., Jian, W., Ryoo, J., Xu, Y. and D. King, "YANG Models for the Northbound Interface of a Transport Network Controller: Requirements, Functions, and a List of YANG Models", Internet-Draft draft-zhang-ccamp-transport-ctrlnorth-yang-00, March 2016.
[I-D.zheng-mpls-lsp-ping-yang-cfg] Zheng, L., Aldrin, S., Zheng, G., Mirsky, G. and R. Rahman, "Yang Data Model for LSP-PING", Internet-Draft draft-zheng-mpls-lsp-ping-yang-cfg-03, March 2016.
[RFC2748] Durham, D., Boyle, J., Cohen, R., Herzog, S., Rajan, R. and A. Sastry, "The COPS (Common Open Policy Service) Protocol", RFC 2748, DOI 10.17487/RFC2748, January 2000.
[RFC2940] Smith, A., Partain, D. and J. Seligson, "Definitions of Managed Objects for Common Open Policy Service (COPS) Protocol Clients", RFC 2940, DOI 10.17487/RFC2940, October 2000.
[RFC3084] Chan, K., Seligson, J., Durham, D., Gai, S., McCloghrie, K., Herzog, S., Reichmeyer, F., Yavatkar, R. and A. Smith, "COPS Usage for Policy Provisioning (COPS-PR)", RFC 3084, DOI 10.17487/RFC3084, March 2001.
[RFC3303] Srisuresh, P., Kuthan, J., Rosenberg, J., Molitor, A. and A. Rayhan, "Middlebox communication architecture and framework", RFC 3303, DOI 10.17487/RFC3303, August 2002.
[RFC3304] Swale, R., Mart, P., Sijben, P., Brim, S. and M. Shore, "Middlebox Communications (midcom) Protocol Requirements", RFC 3304, DOI 10.17487/RFC3304, August 2002.
[RFC3483] Rawlins, D., Kulkarni, A., Bokaemper, M. and K. Chan, "Framework for Policy Usage Feedback for Common Open Policy Service with Policy Provisioning (COPS-PR)", RFC 3483, DOI 10.17487/RFC3483, March 2003.
[RFC3484] Draves, R., "Default Address Selection for Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)", RFC 3484, DOI 10.17487/RFC3484, February 2003.
[RFC3748] Aboba, B., Blunk, L., Vollbrecht, J., Carlson, J. and H. Levkowetz, "Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)", RFC 3748, DOI 10.17487/RFC3748, June 2004.
[RFC4080] Hancock, R., Karagiannis, G., Loughney, J. and S. Van den Bosch, "Next Steps in Signaling (NSIS): Framework", RFC 4080, DOI 10.17487/RFC4080, June 2005.
[RFC4261] Walker, J. and A. Kulkarni, "Common Open Policy Service (COPS) Over Transport Layer Security (TLS)", RFC 4261, DOI 10.17487/RFC4261, December 2005.
[RFC4949] Shirey, R., "Internet Security Glossary, Version 2", FYI 36, RFC 4949, DOI 10.17487/RFC4949, August 2007.
[RFC5189] Stiemerling, M., Quittek, J. and T. Taylor, "Middlebox Communication (MIDCOM) Protocol Semantics", RFC 5189, DOI 10.17487/RFC5189, March 2008.
[RFC5277] Chisholm, S. and H. Trevino, "NETCONF Event Notifications", RFC 5277, DOI 10.17487/RFC5277, July 2008.
[RFC5539] Badra, M., "NETCONF over Transport Layer Security (TLS)", RFC 5539, DOI 10.17487/RFC5539, May 2009.
[RFC5973] Stiemerling, M., Tschofenig, H., Aoun, C. and E. Davies, "NAT/Firewall NSIS Signaling Layer Protocol (NSLP)", RFC 5973, DOI 10.17487/RFC5973, October 2010.
[RFC6022] Scott, M. and M. Bjorklund, "YANG Module for NETCONF Monitoring", RFC 6022, DOI 10.17487/RFC6022, October 2010.
[RFC6241] Enns, R., Bjorklund, M., Schoenwaelder, J. and A. Bierman, "Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF)", RFC 6241, DOI 10.17487/RFC6241, June 2011.
[RFC6242] Wasserman, M., "Using the NETCONF Protocol over Secure Shell (SSH)", RFC 6242, DOI 10.17487/RFC6242, June 2011.
[RFC6243] Bierman, A. and B. Lengyel, "With-defaults Capability for NETCONF", RFC 6243, DOI 10.17487/RFC6243, June 2011.
[RFC6436] Amante, S., Carpenter, B. and S. Jiang, "Rationale for Update to the IPv6 Flow Label Specification", RFC 6436, DOI 10.17487/RFC6436, November 2011.
[RFC6470] Bierman, A., "Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF) Base Notifications", RFC 6470, DOI 10.17487/RFC6470, February 2012.
[RFC6536] Bierman, A. and M. Bjorklund, "Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF) Access Control Model", RFC 6536, DOI 10.17487/RFC6536, March 2012.
[RFC6639] King, D. and M. Venkatesan, "Multiprotocol Label Switching Transport Profile (MPLS-TP) MIB-Based Management Overview", RFC 6639, DOI 10.17487/RFC6639, June 2012.
[RFC6887] Wing, D., Cheshire, S., Boucadair, M., Penno, R. and P. Selkirk, "Port Control Protocol (PCP)", RFC 6887, DOI 10.17487/RFC6887, April 2013.
[RFC7223] Bjorklund, M., "A YANG Data Model for Interface Management", RFC 7223, DOI 10.17487/RFC7223, May 2014.
[RFC7225] Boucadair, M., "Discovering NAT64 IPv6 Prefixes Using the Port Control Protocol (PCP)", RFC 7225, DOI 10.17487/RFC7225, May 2014.
[RFC7277] Bjorklund, M., "A YANG Data Model for IP Management", RFC 7277, DOI 10.17487/RFC7277, June 2014.
[RFC7317] Bierman, A. and M. Bjorklund, "A YANG Data Model for System Management", RFC 7317, DOI 10.17487/RFC7317, August 2014.

Authors' Addresses

Susan Hares Huawei 7453 Hickory Hill Saline, MI 48176 USA EMail: shares@ndzh.com
Bob Moskowitz Huawei Oak Park, MI 48237 EMail: rgm@labs.htt-consult.com
Dacheng Zhang Beijing, China EMail: dacheng.zdc@aliabab-inc.com