DNSSD A. Sullivan
Internet-Draft Dyn
Intended status: Informational November 1, 2015
Expires: May 4, 2016

On Interoperation of Labels Between DNS and Other Resolution Systems


Despite its name, DNS-Based Service Discovery can use naming systems other than the Domain Name System when looking for services. Moreover, when it uses the DNS, DNS-Based Service Discovery uses the full capability of DNS, rather than using a subset of available octets. In order for DNS-SD to be used effectively in environments where multiple different name systems and conventions for their operation are in use, it is important to attend to differences in the underlying technology and operational environment. This memo presents an outline of the requirements for selection of labels for conventional DNS and other resolution systems when they are expected to interoperate in this manner.

Status of This Memo

This Internet-Draft is submitted in full conformance with the provisions of BCP 78 and BCP 79.

Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Note that other groups may also distribute working documents as Internet-Drafts. The list of current Internet-Drafts is at http://datatracker.ietf.org/drafts/current/.

Internet-Drafts are draft documents valid for a maximum of six months and may be updated, replaced, or obsoleted by other documents at any time. It is inappropriate to use Internet-Drafts as reference material or to cite them other than as "work in progress."

This Internet-Draft will expire on May 4, 2016.

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Table of Contents

1. Introduction

DNS-Based Service Discovery (DNS-SD, [RFC6763]) specifies a mechanism for discovering services using queries to the Domain Name System (DNS, [RFC1034], [RFC1035]); and to any other system that uses domain names, such as Multicast DNS (mDNS, [RFC6762]). Conventional use of the DNS generally follows the host name rules [RFC0952] for labels -- the so-called LDH rule. That convention is the reason behind the development of Internationalized Domain Names for Applications (IDNA2008, [RFC5890], [RFC5891], [RFC5892], [RFC5893], [RFC5894], [RFC5895]). It is worth noting that the LDH rule is a convention, and not a rule of the DNS; this is made entirely plain by [RFC2181], section 11. Nevertheless, there is a widespread belief that in many circumstances domain names cannot be used in the DNS unless they cleave to the LDH rule.

At the same time, mDNS requires that labels be encoded in UTF-8, and permits a range of characters in labels that are not permitted by IDNA2008 or the LDH rule. For example, mDNS encourages the use of spaces and punctuation in mDNS names (see [RFC6763], section 4.1.3). It does not restrict which Unicode code points may be used in those labels, so long as the code points are UTF-8 in Net-Unicode [RFC5198] format.

Users of applications are, of course, frequently unconcerned with (not to say oblivious to) the name-resolution system(s) in service at any given moment, and are inclined simply to use the same domain names in different contexts. As a result, the same domain name might be tried using different name resolution technologies. If DNS-SD is to be used in an environment where multiple resolution systems (such as mDNS and DNS) are to be queried for services, then some parts of the domain names to be queried will need to be compatible with the rules and conventions for all the relevant technologies.

One approach to interoperability under these circumstances is to use a single operational convention (a "profile") for domain names under the different naming systems. This memo assumes such a use profile, and attempts to outline what is necessary to make it work without specifying any particular technology. It does assume, however, that the global DNS is eventually likely to be implicated. Given the general tendency of all resolution eventually to fall through to the DNS, that assumption does not seem controversial.

It is worth noting that users of DNS-SD do not use the service discovery names in the same way that users of other domain names might. Domain names often might as easily be entered as direct user input as by any other method. But the service discovery context generally assumes users are picking a service from a list. As a result, the sorts of application considerations that are appropriate to the general-purpose DNS name, and that resulted in the A-label/U-label split (see below) in IDNA2008, are not entirely the right approach for DNS-SD.

1.1. Conventions and terms used in this document

Wherever appropriate, this memo uses the terminology defined in Section 2 of [RFC5890]. In particular, the reader is assumed to be familiar with the terms "U-label", "LDH label", and "A-label" from that document. Similarly, the reader is assumed to be familiar with the U+NNNN notation for Unicode code points used in [RFC5890] and other documents dealing with Unicode code points. In the interests of brevity and consistency, the definitions are not repeated here.

Sometimes this memo refers to names in the DNS as though the LDH rule and IDNA2008 are strict requirements. They are not. DNS labels are, in principle, just collections of octets, and therefore in principle the LDH rule is not a constraint. In practice, applications sometimes intercept labels that do not conform to the LDH rule and apply IDNA and other transformations.

The DNS, perhaps unfortunately, has produced its own jargon. Unfamiliar DNS-related terms in this memo should be found in [I-D.ietf-dnsop-dns-terminology].

The term "owner name" (common to the DNS vernacular; see above) is used here to apply not just to the domain names to be looked up in the DNS, but to any name that might be looked up either in the DNS or using other technologies. It therefore includes names that might not actually exist anywhere. In addition, what follows depends on the idea that not every domain name may be looked up in the DNS. For instance, names ending in "local." (in the presentation format) are not ordinarily looked up in the DNS, but instead by querying mDNS.

DNS-SD specifies three portions of the owner name for a DNS-SD resource record. These are the <Instance> portion, the <Service> portion, and the <Domain>. The owner name made of these three parts is called the Service Instance Name. It is worth observing that a portion may be more than one label long. See [RFC6763], section 4.1. Further discussion of the parts is found in Section 4.

Throughout this memo, mDNS is used liberally as the alternative resolution mechanism to DNS. This is for convenience rather than rigour: any alternative name resolution to DNS could present the same friction with the prevailing operational conventions of the global DNS. It so happens that mDNS is the overwhelmingly successful alternative as of this writing, so it is used in order to make the issues plainer to the reader. Other alternative resolution mechanisms may in general be read wherever mDNS appears in the text, except where details of the mDNS specification appear.

2. Why there could be a problem at all

One might reasonably wonder why there is a problem to be solved at all. After all, DNS labels permit any octet whatsoever, and anything that can be useful with DNS-SD cannot use any names that are outside the protocol strictures of the DNS.

The reason for the trouble is twofold. First, and least troublesome, is the possibility of resolvers that are attempting to offer IDNA service system-wide. Given the design of IDNA2008, it is reasonable to suppose that on some systems high-level name resolution libraries will perform the U-label/A-label transformation automatically, saving applications from these details. If this were the main problem, however, it would presumably be self-correcting; for the right answer would be, "Don't use those libraries for DNS-SD," and DNS-SD would not work reliably in cases where such libraries were in use. This would be unfortunate; but given that DNS-SD in Internet contexts is as of this writing not in ubiquitous use, it should not represent a fatal issue.

The greater problem is that the "infrastructure" types of DNS service -- the root zone, the top-level domains, and so on -- have embraced IDNA and refuse registration of raw UTF-8 into their zones. As of this writing there is (perhaps unfortunately) no reliable way to discover where these sorts of DNS services end. Nevertheless, some client programs (notably web browsers) have adopted a number of different policies about how domain names will be looked up and presented to users given the policies of the relevant DNS zone operators. None of these policies permit raw UTF-8. Since it is anticipated that DNS-SD when used with the DNS will be inside domain names beneath those kinds of "infrastructure" domains, the implications of IDNA2008 must be a consideration.

For further exploration of issues relating to encoding of domain names generally, the reader should consult [RFC6055].

3. Requirements for a profile for label interoperation

Any interoperability between DNS (including prevailing operational conventions) and other resolution technologies will require interoperability across the portions of a DNS-SD Service Instance Name that are implicated in regular DNS lookups. Only some portions are implicated. In any case, if a given portion is implicated, the profile will need to apply to all labels in that portion.

In addition, because DNS-SD Service Instance Names can be used in a domain name slot, care must be taken by DNS-SD-aware resolvers to handle the different portions as outlined here, so that DNS-SD portions that do not use IDNA2008 will not be treated as U-labels and will not accidentally undergo IDNA processing.

Because the profile will need to apply to names that might need to interoperate with names in the public DNS, and because other resolution mechanisms (such as mDNS) could permit labels that IDNA does not, the profile might reduce the labels that could be used with those other resolution mechanisms. One consequence of this is that some recommendations from [RFC6763] will not really be possible to implement using names subject to the profile. In particular, [RFC6763], section 4.1.3 recommends that labels always be stored and communicated as UTF-8, even in the DNS. Because of the way the public DNS is currently operated (see Section 2), the advice to store and transmit labels as UTF-8 in the DNS is likely either to encounter problems or result in unnecessary traffic to the public DNS (or both). In particular, many labels in the <Domain> part of a Service Instance Name is unlikely to be found in its UTF-8 form in the public DNS tree for zones that are using IDNA2008. By contrast, for example, mDNS normally uses UTF-8.

U-labels cannot contain upper case letters. That restriction extends to ASCII-range upper case letters that work fine in LDH-labels. It may be confusing that the character "A" works in the DNS when none of the characters in the label has a diacritic, but does not work when there is such a diacritic in the label. Labels in mDNS names (or other resolution technologies) may contain upper case characters, so the profile will need either to restrict the use of upper case or come up with a reliable and predictable (to users) convention for case folding even in the presence of diacritics.

4. DNS-SD portions

Service Instance Names are made up of three portions.

4.1. The <Instance> Portion of the Service Instance Name

[RFC6763] is clear that the <Instance> portion of the Service Instance Name is intended for presentation to users, and therefore virtually any character is permitted in it. There are two ways that a profile might address this portion.

The first way would be to treat this portion as likely to be intercepted by system-wide IDNA-aware resolvers, or likely subject to strict IDNA conformance requirements for publication in the relevant zone. In this case, the portion would need to be made subject to the profile, thereby curtailing what characters may appear in this portion. This approach permits DNS-SD to use any standard system resolver but presents inconsistencies with the DNS-SD specification and with DNS-SD that is exclusively mDNS-based. Therefore, this strategy is rejected.

Instead, DNS-SD implementations can intercept the <Instance> portion of a Service Instance Name and ensure that those labels are never handed to IDNA-aware resolvers that might attempt to convert these labels into A-labels. Under this approach, the DNS-SD <Instance> portion works as it always does, but at the cost of using special resolution code built into the DNS-SD system. A practical consequence of this is that zone operators need to be prepared not to apply the LDH rule to all labels, and may need to make special concessions to ensure that the <Instance> portion can contain spaces, upper and lower case, and any UTF-8 code point; or else to prepare a user interface to handle the exceptions that would otherwise be generated. Automatic conversion to A-labels is not acceptable.

4.2. The <Service> Portion of the Service Instance Name

DNS-SD includes a <Service> component in the Service Instance Name. This component is not really user-facing data, but is instead control data embedded in the Service Instance Name. This component includes so-called "underscore labels", which are labels prepended with U+005F (_). The underscore label convention was established by DNS SRV ([RFC2782]) for identifying metadata inside DNS names. A system-wide resolver (or DNS middlebox) that cannot handle underscore labels will not work with DNS-SD at all, so it is safe to suppose that such resolvers will not attempt to do special processing on these labels. Therefore, the <Service> portion of the Service Instance Name will not be subject to the profile. By the same token, it should be noted that underscore labels are never subject to IDNA processing (they're formally incompatible), and therefore concerns about IDNA are irrelevant for these labels.

4.3. The <Domain> Portion of the Service Instance Name

The <Domain> portion of the Service Instance Name forms an integral part of the owner name submitted for DNS resolution. A system-wide resolver that is IDNA2008-aware is likely to interpret labels with UTF-8 in the owner name as candidates for IDNA2008 processing. More important, operators of internationalized domain names will frequently publish such names in the DNS as A-labels; certainly, the top-most labels will always be A-labels. Therefore, these labels will need to be subject to the profile. DNS-SD implementations ought to identify the <Domain> portion of the Service Instance Name and treat it subject to IDNA2008 in case the domain is to be queried from the global DNS. In the event that the <Domain> portion of the Service Instance Name fails to resolve, it is acceptable to substitute labels with plain UTF-8, starting at the lowest label in the DNS tree and working toward the root. This approach differs from the rule for resolution published in [RFC6763], because it privileges IDNA2008-compatible labels over UTF-8 labels.

One might argue against this restriction on either of two grounds: [RFC6763] was published, the bulk of IDNs were lower in the tree. Now that there are internationalized labels in the root zone, it is desirable to minimize queries to the Internet infrastructure if they are sure to be answered in the negative.

  1. It is possible the names may be in the DNS in UTF-8, and RFC 6763 already specifies a fallback strategy of progressively attempting first the UTF-8 label lookup (it might not be a U-label) and then if possible the A-label lookup.
  2. Zone administrators that wish to support DNS-SD can publish a UTF-8 version of the zone along side the A-label version of the zone.

The first of these is rejected because it represents a potentially significant increase in DNS lookup traffic for no value. It is possible for a DNS-SD application to identify the <Domain> portion of the Service Instance Name. The standard way to publish IDNs on the Internet uses IDNA. Therefore, additional lookups should not be encouraged. When

The second reason depends on the idea that it is possible to maintain two names in sync with one another. This is not strictly speaking true, although in this case the domain operator could simply create a DNAME record [RFC6672] from the UTF-8 name to the IDNA2008 zone. This still, however, relies on being able to reach the (UTF-8) name in question, and it is unlikely that the UTF-8 version of the zone will be delegated from anywhere. Moreover, in many organizations the support for DNS-SD and the support for domain name delegations are not performed by the same department, and depending on a co-ordination between the two will make the system more fragile, or slower, or both.

Some resolvers -- particularly those that are used in mixed DNS and non-DNS environments -- may be aware of different operational conventions in different parts of the DNS tree. For example, it may be possible for implementations to use hints about the boundary of an organization's domain name infrastructure, in order to tell (for instance) that example.com. is part of the Example Organization while com. is a large delegation-centric zone on the public Internet. In such cases, the resolution system might reverse its preferences to prefer plain UTF-8 labels when resolving names below the boundary point in the DNS tree. The result would be that any lookup past the boundary point and closer to the root would use LDH-labels first, falling back to UTF-8 only after a failure; but a lookup below the boundary point would use UTF-8 labels first, and try other strategies only in case of negative answers. The mechanism to learn such a boundary is beyond the scope of this document.

5. Acknowledgements

The author gratefully acknowledges the insights of Joe Abley, Stuart Cheshire, Paul Hoffman, Kerry Lynn, and Dave Thaler. Kerry Lynn deserves special gratitude for his energy and persistence in pressing unanswered questions. Doug Otis sent many comments about visual confusability.

6. IANA Considerations

This memo makes no requests of IANA.

7. Security Considerations

This memo presents some requirements for future development, but does not specify anything. It makes no additional security-specific requirements. Issues arising due to visual confusability of names apply to this case as well as to any other case of internationalized names, but interoperation between different resolution systems and conventions does not alter the severity of those issues.

8. Informative References

[I-D.ietf-dnsop-dns-terminology] Hoffman, P., Sullivan, A. and K. Fujiwara, "DNS Terminology", Internet-Draft draft-ietf-dnsop-dns-terminology-05, September 2015.
[RFC0952] Harrenstien, K., Stahl, M. and E. Feinler, "DoD Internet host table specification", RFC 952, October 1985.
[RFC1034] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities", STD 13, RFC 1034, November 1987.
[RFC1035] Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - implementation and specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987.
[RFC2181] Elz, R. and R. Bush, "Clarifications to the DNS Specification", RFC 2181, July 1997.
[RFC2782] Gulbrandsen, A., Vixie, P. and L. Esibov, "A DNS RR for specifying the location of services (DNS SRV)", RFC 2782, February 2000.
[RFC5198] Klensin, J. and M. Padlipsky, "Unicode Format for Network Interchange", RFC 5198, March 2008.
[RFC5890] Klensin, J., "Internationalized Domain Names for Applications (IDNA): Definitions and Document Framework", RFC 5890, August 2010.
[RFC5891] Klensin, J., "Internationalized Domain Names in Applications (IDNA): Protocol", RFC 5891, August 2010.
[RFC5892] Faltstrom, P., "The Unicode Code Points and Internationalized Domain Names for Applications (IDNA)", RFC 5892, August 2010.
[RFC5893] Alvestrand, H. and C. Karp, "Right-to-Left Scripts for Internationalized Domain Names for Applications (IDNA)", RFC 5893, August 2010.
[RFC5894] Klensin, J., "Internationalized Domain Names for Applications (IDNA): Background, Explanation, and Rationale", RFC 5894, August 2010.
[RFC5895] Resnick, P. and P. Hoffman, "Mapping Characters for Internationalized Domain Names in Applications (IDNA) 2008", RFC 5895, September 2010.
[RFC6055] Thaler, D., Klensin, J. and S. Cheshire, "IAB Thoughts on Encodings for Internationalized Domain Names", RFC 6055, February 2011.
[RFC6672] Rose, S. and W. Wijngaards, "DNAME Redirection in the DNS", RFC 6672, June 2012.
[RFC6762] Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "Multicast DNS", RFC 6762, February 2013.
[RFC6763] Cheshire, S. and M. Krochmal, "DNS-Based Service Discovery", RFC 6763, February 2013.

Appendix A. Change History

Note to RFC Editor: this section should be removed prior to publication.

A.1. draft-ietf-dnssd-mdns-dns-interop-02

A.2. draft-ietf-dnssd-mdns-dns-interop-01

Alter text to make clear that the main issue is the way the public DNS is currently administered, not system resolvers. I suppose this should have been clear before, but I didn't do that. Many thanks to Kerry Lynn for penetrating questions that illuminated what I'd left out.

A.3. draft-ietf-dnssd-mdns-dns-interop-00

1st WG version

Add text to make clear that fallback from A-label lookup to UTF-8 label lookup ok, per WG comments at IETF 91

A.4. draft-sullivan-dnssd-mdns-dns-interop-01

A.5. draft-sullivan-dnssd-mdns-dns-interop-00

Initial version.

Author's Address

Andrew Sullivan Dyn 150 Dow St. Manchester, NH 03101 U.S.A. EMail: asullivan@dyn.com